اثر تراکم کاشت بر عملکرد دانه و صفات زراعی در تعدادی از لاین‌‌های لوبیای محلی گیلان

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران

3 بخش تحقیقات زراعی - باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گیلان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی واکنش تعدادی از لاین‌های لوبیا محلی گیلان (پاچ‌باقلا) به تراکم کاشت از نظر عملکرد، رشد و برخی از صفات زراعی، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1394-1393 در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان گیلان به ‌صورت کرت‌های خردشده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تراکم کاشت در سه سطح (33، 16 و 11 بوته در متر‌مربع) به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی و لاین در پنج سطح (Gd91-7، Gd91-8، Gc91-9، Gd91-15 و Gd91-18) به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. اثر تراکم بوته بر صفات عملکرد دانه خشک، عملکرد بیولوژیک و نسبت عملکرد دانه خشک به عملکرد غلاف سبز در واحد سطح معنی‌دار بود. اثر لاین بر صفات ارتفاع بوته، طول غلاف، طول دانه، عملکرد غلاف سبز در واحد سطح، عملکرد دانه خشک در بوته، شاخص برداشت و وزن صد دانه معنی‌دار بود. اثر متقابل دو فاکتور بر طول غلاف، عملکرد غلاف سبز در واحد سطح، عملکرد دانه خشک در بوته، نسبت عملکرد دانه خشک به عملکرد غلاف سبز و وزن صد دانه معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه خشک (05/316 گرم در متر‌مربع) در تراکم 33 بوته و کمترین میزان آن (42/67 گرم در متر‌مربع) در تراکم 11 بوته به‌دست آمد. بیشترین عملکرد غلاف سبز (84/1101 گرم در متر‌مربع) در لاین Gd91-15 و با تراکم 33 بوته در متر‌مربع حاصل شد. لاین Gd91-8 با توجه به صفاتی چون ارتفاع بوته، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد دانه در بوته، طول دانه،عملکرد دانه خشک و عملکرد غلاف سبز به‌عنوان لاین برتر بود و می‌توان از آن در برنامه‌های به‌نژادی و به‌زراعی استفاده نمود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Plant Density on Seed Yield and Morphological Characteristics of Some Guilan Local Bean Lines

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Zendedel_Sabet 1
  • P. Sharifi 2
  • M. Gholami 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
3 3- Horticulture and Crops Research Department, Guilan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Grain legumes, as a protein-rich food, play an important role in human nutrition, especially in developing countries. Common bean, being a leguminous and short duration crop, may be used as a soil improving crop in rotation and in cropping system. Among the various factors that contribute to the attainment of potential yield of common bean, optimum plant spacing or plant population is one of the important factors. Optimization of plant density for highly new yielding lines by following suitable inter as well as intra row spacing is essential. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of plant density on yield and agronomic traits of some Guilan local bean lines.
Materials and Methods
This field experiment was carried out in split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in 2014-2015 growing season at Guilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and EducationCenter. The main factor was plant density at three levels (33, 16 and 11 plants per m2) and the split factor was five Guilan local bean lines (Gd91-7, Gd91-8, Gc91-9, Gd91-15 and Gd91-18).
Results
Analysis of variance showed that the effect of plant density was significant on dry seed yield, dry seed yield to pod yield ratio and biological yield per unit area. The effect of line was significant on plant height, pod length, seed length, pod yield per unit area, dry seed yield per plant, dry seed yield to pod yield ratio, harvest index and 100-seed weight. The interaction effect of the two factors was significant on the pod lenght, pod yield per unit area, dry seed yield per plant and 100-seed weight. The highest value of seed yield (11.44 g plant-1) was obtained in Gd91-8 at the density of 33 plants per m2. The highest (316.5 g m-2) and lowest (67.42 g m-2) values of dry seed yield was obtained at the density of 33 plants per m2 and 11 plants per m2, respectively. The highest values of green pods yield (1101.84 g m-2) was obtained in Gd91-15 at a density of 33 plants per m2.
Discussion
The reduction of dry seed yield per plant in 33 plants per m2 density in comparison to 16 plants per m2 for Gd91-18 and Gc91-9 and in 11 plants per m2 for Gd91-7 seems to be due to restricted access to the sun radiation or dietary lemitations and genotypic characteristics. Other reasons for the decrease of grain yield per plant at high densities can be the reduction of the number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, pod length and 100 seed weight. Gd91-8 as a superior line according to triats such as plant height, number of pods per plant, pod length, dry seed yield and green pod yield and can be used for breeding programes as a suitable line.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry seed
  • genotype
  • Green pod
  • Growth
  • Phaseolus vulgaris L
References
Abd-Mishani, S. and Shah-Nejat Boshehri, A. A. (1997). Advanced plant breeding (Vol. l). Tehran: University Publishers. [In Farsi]
Ahmadinia, M. A. (2008). Effect of plant density on grain yield and yield components in coomon bean in Sanandaj. M.Sc. Thesis, Hamedan Buali-Sina University. [In Farsi]
Allard, R. W. (1999). Principles of plant breeding (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Barary, M., Mazaheri, D. and Banai, T. (2003). The effect of row and plant spacing on the growth and yield of chickpea. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2(12), 241-261.
Bayat, A. A. Sepehri, A., Ahmadvand, G. and Dorri, H. R. (2010). Effect of water deficit stress on yield and yield components of pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes. Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 12(1), 42-54. [In Farsi]
Faraji, H., Gholizadeh, S., Owliaiee, H. R. and Azimi Gandomani, M. (2010). Effect of plant density on grain yield of three spotted bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) cultivars in Yasouj condition. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 1(1), 43-50. [In Farsi]
Golchin, A. Mousavi, S. F. Ghasemi Golezani, K. and Saba, J. (2008). Relationship between plant density and grain yield of three pinto bean cultivars at different sowing dates. Journal of Agricultural Science, 18(1), 101-117. [In Farsi]
Hosseinian, S. H. and Majnon-Hosseini, N. (2015). Correlation analysis between seed yield and its components in cowpea genotypes under drought and stress and normal irrigation conditions. Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 45(4), 575-583. [In Farsi]
Jensen H. H. and Kamalongo D. and Ngwira, A. (2014). Yields and quality of Phaseolus bean cultivars under farmers' conditions in eastern and southern Africa. Experimental Agriculture, 50(2), 178-190.
Keshavarznia, R., Mohammadi Nargesi, B. and Abasi, A. (2013). The study of genetic variation of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) based on morphological traits under normal and stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science, 44(2), 305-315. [In Farsi]
Madani, H., Shirzadi, M. H. and Darini, F. (2008). Effect of plant density on yield and yield components of vigna and tepary local beans germplasm in Jiroft, Iran. New Findings in Agriculture, 3(1), 93-104. [In Farsi]
Mekonnen, S. A., Katiyar, T. P. S. and Ravishankar, H. (2012). Yield components and yield of haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under different irrigation frequency and planting density treatments. The African Journal of Plant Science and Biotechnology, 6(1), 13-20.
Melaku, B. (2012). Responces of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars with different growth habits to plant density at Haramaya, eastern Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia.
Nazrul, M. I. and Shaheb, M. R. (2016). Performance of french bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes in sylhet region of Bangladesh. Bangladesh Agronomy Journal, 19(1), 37-44.
Pawar, S. U. Kharwade, M. L. and Awari, H. W. (2007). Effect of plant density on vegetative growth and yield performance of different varieties of french bean under irrigated condition. Karnataka Journal of Agriculture Science, 20(3), 684-685.
Rahnamaie Tak, A., Vaezi, S., Mozafari, J. and Shah Nejat Boshehri, A. A. (2006). Study on correlation and path analysis for seed yield per plant and its dependent traits in red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Pajouhsh and Sazandegi, 76(3), 80-88. [In Farsi]
Rastegar, M. A. (2006). Principles of crop production. Tehran: Barahmand Publication. [In Farsi]
Saindon, G., Huang, G. and Kozub, H. C. (1995). White-mold avoidance and agronomic attributes of upright common beans growth at multiple planting densities in narrow rows. Journal of American Socity for Horticultural Science, 120(5), 843- 847.
Salehi, F. (2005). Study of plant density yield and yield components of promising red bean lines. Pajouhsh and Sazandegi, 103(2), 23-28. [In Farsi]
Shafaroodi, A., Zavareh, M., Peyvast, G. and Dorri, H. R. (2012). Effect of sowing date and plant density on grain yield and yield components in dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) landraces, 22(3), 47-60. [In Farsi]
Sharifi, P. (2013). Statistical Design in Agricultural Research: Principles, procedures and Analysis by SAS, SPSS and Minitab. Rasht: Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch Publication. [In Farsi]
Sharifi, P., Karbalavi, N. and Aminpanah, H. (2014). Effects of drought stress and potassium sulfate fertilizer on green bean yield. Electronic Journal of Crop Production, 6(4), 137-149. [In Farsi]
Siddique, K.H.M., and Sedgley, R.H. (1985). The effect of reduced branching on yield and water use of chickpea: In a mediterranean type environment. Field Crops Research, 12(3), 251-262.
Soghani, M., Vaezi, S. and SabaghPur, S. H. (2010). Correlation and path analysis of yield and yield components of white bean. Agronomy and Plant Breeding Journal, 6(3), 28-35. [In Farsi]
Torabi Jafroudi, A., Hasanzadeh, A. and Fayaz Moghaddam, A. (2007a.) Effects of plant population on some of morph physiological characteristics of two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. Pajouhsh and Sazandegi, 74(1), 63-71. [In Farsi]
Torabi Jafroudi, A., Moghaddam, A. F., Hasanzade, A., Yazdifar, S. and Rahmanzade, S. (2007b). Row spacing and inter row spacing effects on some agro-physiological traits of two common bean (Phaseolous vulgaris L.) cultivars. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science, 10(24), 4543-4546.
Vaezi, S., Cheraghafrooz, R. and Abbasimoghddam, A. (2013). Evaluation of genetic diversity and relationship among agronomic traits in selected accessions bean collection. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research, 4(1), 31-42. [In Farsi]