Document Type : Research Paper - Weed Sciences


1 , Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics Department. Faculty of Agriculture. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Ahvaz, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Department of Genetic and Plant Production Engineering Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran


Conservation tillage practices and the presence of crop residues on the soil surface have a positive effect on crop yields by reducing the germination and establishment of weeds during crop growth. The presence of weeds is one of the most important factors that reduce agricultural products in the world and it leads to a large reduction in the yield of agricultural products. Weeds, as one of the effective limiting factors for canola cultivation, cause a decrease in the yield of canola due to the competition in absorbing the environmental resources of growth such as nutrients, radiation, and water. On the other hand, mixing weed seeds with canola reduces the quality of its oil. Therefore, this experiment was conducted with the aim of investigating the integrated management of weeds and alternating plowing on the yield and some agricultural characteristics of canola in the conditions of Ahvaz.
Materials and Methods
In order to investigate the effect of sequential tillage and weed management, research was conducted in the year 2021-2022 in the research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz. The lay out of this research was an experimental design of split plots in the form of randomized complete block design with 3 replications. The main factor of tillage in three levels: 1) zero tillage-zero tillage, 2) reduce tillage-conventional tillage and 3) Conventional tillage-zero tillage and the sub-plot of weed control in six levels: 1) control, 2) hand weeding, 3) cycloxidem herbicide 2 liters per hectare in installments of 15 and 30 days after sowing, 4) cycloxidem herbicide 2 liters per hectare at 30 days after sowing, 5) crop residues as surface mulch (maize @ 5 tons per hectare) and 6) crap residues + cycloxidem herbicide was 1.5 liters per hectare at 30 days after sowing. Statistical analysis of data was done using SAS software and comparison of averages with LSD method.
Results and Discussion
The results of the experiment showed that the highest seed number per silique, the highest seed yield, the highest biological yield, and the percentage of oil in the treatment were related to the mutual effects of conventional tillage and manual weeding. The highest silique number per plant and 1000 seeds weight were in the conditions of conventional tillage and the application of 2 liters of herbicide per hectare in installments. The highest rate of harvest index was obtained with 26.80 percent in the condition without tillage and the application of 2 liters of cycloxidum herbicide per hectare in installments.
The use of conventional tillage and the use of cycloxidum herbicide 2 liters per hectare in division along with manual weeding can be effective in controlling weeds and increasing crop yield. In other hand the use of integrated management of weeds and the use of an effective combination of different methods of weed control with sequential tillage, which is effective in terms of society and the environment, and can reduce the damage caused by weeds and burning of residue.


Main Subjects

Agha Alikhani, M., Adlondi, B., & Qanati, F. (2019). The allelopathic effect of Wheat and Rye residues on weed control and sweet corn yield in next season. Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology)32(2), 280-292. [In Persian]
Amini, R., & Yosefi, A. (2014). Using Reduced Rates of Trifluralin and Hand Weeding in Sustainable Weed Management of Fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare Mill.). Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 24(2), 95-105.
Arshadhi Khamsa, A., Almasi, M., Rashad Sadiqi, A., & Ahmadi Adli, R. (2018). The effect of conservation tillage on irrigation planning and yield of canola. 22(1): 105-115.
Auskarniene, O., Psibisauskiene, G., Auskalnis, A., & Kadzys, A. (2010). Cultivar and plant density influence on weediness in spring barely crops. Zemdirbyste-Agriculture.  97: 53- 60.
Baniasadi, R., Tohidi-Nejad, E., & Mohammadi-Nejad, Gh. (2014). Evaluation of different methods oftillage and residue management of barley in maize production. Agricultural Science and SustainableProduction, 24(4), 61-69. [In Persian]
Beckie, H., Harker, K., Legere, A., Morrison, M., Swartz, G., & Falk, K. (2011). GM canola: The Canadian experience. Farm Pol8:43-49.
Behdarvand, P. (2013). Investigating the competitive ecophysiological effects of wild oats on wheat in the environmental conditions of Khuzestan. Master's thesis of Islamic Azad University, Dezful branch. P. 124.
Blandi-Amuqin, M., Tobe, A., Al-Ibrahim, M. T., Qalipouri, A., & Ghasemi, M. (2014). The effect of cover plants on weed control and improvement of seed yield and vegetative characteristics of hybrid sunflower. Journal of Ecological Agriculture. 1(5): 114-127.
Chikoye, D., Schulz, S., & Ekeleme, F. (2004). Evaluation of integrated weed management practices for maize in the northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. Crop Protection. 23: 895-900.
Faraji, A. (2016). Response of oilseed rape hybrids and promising lines to sowing date in Gorgan area. Seed and Plant Production, 32 (1): 65-79 [In Persian]
Foladi Vanda, S., Aine-Band, A., & Naraki, F. (2017). Evaluation of different tillage methods and seed amount on yield and yield components of rapeseed under dry conditions. Journal of Agricultural Research of Iran, 8(2): 224-213. [In Persian]
Fruzandeh, S.A., Elahi Fard, A., Heydarpour, N., & Siahpoosh, A. (2016). The effect of tillage systems and the use of herbicides in the control of rapeseed weeds. Scientific Research Journal of Crop Plants Ecophysiology. 11(4): 178-163. [In Persian]
Hamzei, J., & Borbor, A. (2014). Effect of different soil tillage methods and cover crops on yield andyield components of corn and some soil characteristics. Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 24(3): 36-47. [In Persian]
Hemmat, A., & Eskandari, I. (2006). Dry-land winter wheat response to conservation tillage in a continuous cropping system in northwestern Iran. Soil and Tillage Research. 86: 99-109.
Jamalzadeh, M. J., Bazarafshan, F., Alizadeh, A., Zare, M., & Bahrani, A. (2017). Investigating the effect of herbicides in different tillage systems on weeds and corn yield. Iranian Journal of Weed Science. 10(2): 36-29. [In Persian]
Kamkar, B., & Mahdavi Damghani, A. (2008). Principle of Sustainable Agriculture. JDM Press, 316 pp.
Kochaki, A., & Khajeh Hosseini, M. (2017). Modern agriculture. Publications University of Mashhad.
Kokhaki, A., & Sarmadanya, G. (2017). Physiology of Crop Plants book. The seventh edition. Tehran University Publications.
Komili, H., Qudsi, M., Rizvani-Moghadam, P., Nasiri-Mehlati, M., & Jamal-Kamali, M. (2015). Study of soil characteristics, yield and yield components of barley under the influence of different tillage methods and amount of plant residues. Journal of Agricultural Research of Iran. 16(3): 556-541. [In Persian]
Lugandu, S. (2013). Factors Influencing the Adoption off Conservation Agriculture by Smallholder Farmers in Karatu and Kongwa Districts of Tanzania. Presented at REPOA’s 18th Annual Research Workshop held at the Kunduchi Beach Hotel, Dares Salaam, Tanzania.
Miri, H., & Rahimi, Y. (2018). Investigating the effect of some new herbicides in controlling rapeseed weeds in Bushehr province. Journal of Plant Ecophysiology. 1(1): 64-49. [In Persian]
Momeni, S. (2011). The effect of salicylic acid and polyethylene glycol priming with salicylic acid spraying the plant with resistance to drought maize (Zea mays L.). M.S. thesis, University of Birjand.
Monaco, T., Weller, S., & Ashton, F. (2002). weed science: principles and practices. Wiley-Blackwell. 688 pp.
Najafinezhad, H., Javaheri, M., Ravari, S., & Azad Shahraki, F. (2009). Effect of crop rotation and wheat residue management on grain yield of maize cv. KSC704 and some soil properties. Seed and Plant Production Journal, 25(2): 247–260.
NorAftab, R., Monsefi, A., Rahnama Ghahfarokhi, A., & Ayneband, A. (2021). Effect of Conservation Tillage and Integrated Weed Management on Yield, Energy Consumption and Profitability of Wheat in Khuzestan. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 31(2):57-73. doi: 10.22034/saps.2021.13091[In Persian]
Omidi, H., Tahmasabi Sarostani, Z., Qalavand, A., & Modares Thanavi M.A. (2014). The effect of tillage systems and row spacing on seed yield and oil percentage of two canola varieties. Journal of Agricultural Sciences of Iran. 7(2): 111-97. [In Persian]
Pratikshya Rani, S., Duary, B., & Priyatam, S. (2017). Effect of Tillage and Weed management practices on Weed Control and Yield in Wheat. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 9 (6): 2328-2335.
Qin, H., Gao, W., Ma, Y., Yang, S., & Zhao, P. (2007). Effects of no-tillage on soil properties affecting wind erosion during fallow in Ecotone of northChina. Asta Ecologica Sinica, 9: 3778-3784.
Rezaie, Y., Elahifard, E., Siadat, S.A., & Abdolahi Lorestani,S. (2021). Integrated mechanical weeding and herbicide application in weed management of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.). Plant Productions, 44(2): 171-182. [In Persian]
Safikhani, S., Biabani, A., Faraji, A., Rahemi, A., & A. Gholizadeh. (2015). Response of some agronomic characteristics of canola (Brassica napus L.) to nitrogen fertilizer and sowing date. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 9(3): 429-446. [In Persian]
Saidi-Nia, A., & Mousavi, S.G. (2017). The effect of integrated management of weeds on yield and yield components of corn. Weed science magazine Journal, 15(1): 59-75.
Shirani, A., Alizadeh, B., Amiri-Oghan, H., Jabari, M., Roudi, D., Kihanian, A., Rahmanpour, S., Nurqalipour, F. Ivani, A., Malek-Ahmadi, H.., Razavi, R., & Dolat-Perst, B. (2019). Technical guidelines for rapeseed production in the country. Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization, Seed and Plant Breeding Research Institute.
Shiranirad, A., & Dehshiri, A., (2002). Guidence of rapseed. Education technology service. [In Persian]
Sorkheh, M., Zaafarian, F., & Qurina, M.H. (2019). The effect of green manure under different tillage conditions on weed characteristics and corn yield. Herbal products. 43(2): 294-283. [In Persian]
Stirk, W., Arthur, G., Lourena, A, Novak, O., Strmad, M., & Van Staden, J., (2004). Changes In Cytokinin And Auin Concentrations In Seaweed Concentrates Whenstored At An Elevated Temperature. Journal Applied Phycology 16: 31-39.
Tohidinia, M.A., Aghaalikhani, M., Shirani rad, A.H., Mokhtassi bidgoli, A., & Madani, H. (2020). Seed yield response of rapeseed genotypes to delayed sowing under karaj environmental conditions. Seed and Plant, 36(2), 137-160. [In Persian]
Torabi, M., and Heidarisoltanabadi, M. 2020. Effect of different seed rates on yield and some agronomic traits of alfalfa Mohageran ecotype in no-till and conventional tillage methods in Semirom region. Plant Productions, 43(3): 375-386. [In Persian]
Wright, A., Hons, F., Lemon, R., McFarland, M., & Nichols, R. (2007). Stratification of nutrients in soil for different tillage regimes and cotton rotations. Soil and Tillage Research, 96: 19-27.
Zand, E., Mousavi, S., and Heidari, A. 2008. Herbicides and their application. Jahad Daneshgahi Mashhad Press. 567 pp.
Zangoueinejad, R., and Alebrahim, M. T. (2018). The Effect of organic mulches and metribuzin on weed control and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Journal of Crop Ecophysiology12(45(1)): 139-152.
Zarrin Kaviani, b., Zeidali, E., Moradi, R., & Zarrin Kaviani, k. (2019). Evaluation of the effect of integrated weed management on quantitative and qualitative characteristics of corn, weed density and biomass under Dehloran climatic condition. Applied field crops research (Pajouhesh & Sazandegi), 31(4 (121)): 129-150. [In Persian]