Document Type : Research Paper - Seed Sciences


1 Ph.D. student, Department of Agricultural Machinery engineering, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran


From an agricultural point of view, seeds are the starting point of all activities that lead to crop production. Today, agricultural machinery is one of the most important sources of environmental pollutants in mechanized farms and pollution caused by them can disrupt the germination process and plant growth. Therefore, in addition to a variety of environmental challenges, such as salinity and drought stress, contamination from agricultural machinery can also be added to germination and seedling growth as a threat.
Materials and Methods
Based on the gray correlation coefficient between the comparison series and the standard series, a relative series can be created. If γ (x_0, x_i) ≥γ (x_0, x_j), which indicates the degree of correlation between x_i and x_0, is greater than x_j and x_0; In this case, the relationship between potential causes and the optimal amounts of decision factors is shown. In the sense that a larger degree of connection has a smaller effect. Therefore, increasing the degree of prioritization of risk indicates the potential reasons that need to be improved. To analyze the risk of gaseous pollutants leaving the tractor exhaust, the treatment with the lowest gray correlation coefficient should show the highest risk priority. So that the highest degree of gray connection determines the best state of seed treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pollutants from tractor exhaust in three different initial life, useful life and burn on canola seed germination. This factorial experiment was performed based on a completely randomized design with three replications. Experimental treatments include three different tractor life periods including initial life, useful life and wear as the first factor, and treatment for the duration of seeds exposed to tractor exhaust pollution including zero, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes as the factor. The second was considered.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that the highest values of root and stem length, germination rate coefficient, germination index, germination rate index and canola seed vigor were obtained from the absence of exhaust pollution; while the lowest amount of these traits was related to the treatment of exposure to contamination for 120 minutes and worn tractor. Conversely, the amount of seed protein and the activity of antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase increased with increasing tractor wear and duration of contamination. Calculations based on gray theory showed that the treatment with a lower rank is the preferred treatment and has a lower risk according to all growth indices considered for rapeseed. In this study, zero time for different tractor lives without treatment, the risk was identified. Therefore, it is likely that increasing the exposure time to the tractor exhaust contaminant will gradually reduce the seed tolerance and poisoning threshold.
Gray's theory has shown that the duration of exposure is more important than the amount of contamination. The severity of exposure also varied depending on the degree of infection. Rapeseed seeds were more sensitive to contaminants from worn-out tractors than new tractors. The sensitivity of these seeds doubles the need to replace worn-out machines, service and repair tractors in a timely manner, use clean fuel, and use new or serviceable tractors.


Main Subjects

Ahmadi, M., Omidi, M., Alizadeh, B., & ShahNejat Bushehri, A. (2021). Evaluation of adaptation and sustainabilit of winter oilseed rape mutant lines in cold and mild cold regions of Iran by GGE biplot method. Plant Productions, 44(3), 345-347. [In Persian]
Amiri, N., Nasirzadeh, F. (2010). Application of FMEA approach to evaluate risk assessment of signaling system damages, markers, control and metro communications. The 2th International Conference on Recent Advances in Railway Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran.
Association IST. (2017). International rules for seed testing. Edition: Zürich.
Bayati, P., Ghobadi, M., Ghobadi, M. E., & Mohammadi, Gh. R. (2016). Establishment of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Seedlings in Field. Iranian Journal of Seed Science and Technology, 5(1), 27-38. [in Persian]
Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72(1-2), 248-254.
Chehregani, A. and Kouhkan, F. (2008). Diesel Exhaust Particles and allergenicity of pollen grain of Lilium martagon. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 69, 568-573.
Chehregani, A., Majde, A., Gholami, M., Shariatzadeh, M., et al. (2004). Effect of air pollution on some cytogenetic characteristics, structure, viability and proteins of Zinnia elegans pollen grains. Pakistan Journal Biological Science, 7, 118-122.
Clemens, S. (2001). Molecular mechanisms of plant metal tolerance and homeostasis. Planta, 212, 475-486.
Dekker, J. and Hargrove, M. (2002). Weedy adaptation in Setaria spp. V. Effects of gaseous environment on giant foxtail (Setaria faberii) (Poaceae) seed germination. American Journal of Botany, 89(3), 410-416.
Ghorbani, M., Soltani, A. and Amiri, S. (2008). The effect of salinity and seed size on response of wheat germination and seedling growth. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, 14(6), 44-52.
Hemeda, H. M. and Kelin, B. P. (1990). Effects of naturally occurring antioxidants on peroxidase activity of vegetables extracts. Journal Food Science, 55, 184-192.
Kader, M. A. (2005). Comparison of seed germination calculation formulae and the associated interpretation of resulting data. Journal and Proceeding of the Royal Society of New South Wales, 138, 65-75.
Lijewski, P. and Merkisz, J. (2013). Exhaust emissions from farm tractors operating in urban areas. WIT Transactions on The Built Environment, 130, 447-453.
Mahmood, M. and Iqbal, M. (1989). Impact of vehicular emission on seed germination of some roadside trees Albizia lebbeck, Peltophorum roxburghii and Dalbergia sissoo. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 32, 752-753.
Moreira, B., Tormo, J., Estrelles, E. and Pausas, J. (2010). Disentangling the role of heat and smoke as germination cues in Mediterranean Basin flora. Annals of Botany, 105(4), 627-635.
Perera, F.P. (2017). Multiple threats to child health from fossil fuel combustion: impacts of air pollution and climate change. Environmental Health Perspectives, 125(2), 141-148.
Qadir, N. and Iqbal, M.Z. (1991). Growth of some plants raised from polluted and unpolluted seeds. International Journal of Environmental Studies, 39(1-2), 95-99.
Rahimi, M., Rabiei, B., Rabiei. M. (2012). Important Morphological Traits on Canola Yield as Second Cultivation in Guilan. Plant Production, 35(2), 85-98. [In Persian]
Shafei Nikabadi, M., Farkhoden, H., Fallah Sanami, S. (2016). FMEA optimization using combine methods Demtel, Taguchi and Gray theory analysis. Industrial Engineering and Management, 31(2), 73-82.
Shafiq, M. and Iqbal, M.Z. (2012). Effect of autoexhaust emission on germination and seedling growth of an important arid tree Cassia siamea Lamk. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 24(3), PP: 234.
Türkan, I. (1988). The effect of exhaust gas on seed germination and seedling growth of cucumber (Cucumber sativus L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. subsp. vulgare). Journal of Turk Phytopath, 17(2), 81-87.
Van Pijlen, J., Kraak, H., Bino, R. and De Vos, C. (1995). Effects of aging and osmopriming on germination characteristics and chromosome aberrations of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seeds. Seed Science and Technology (Switzerland), 23, 823- 830.
Yousefi, N., Chehregani, A., Malayeri, B., Lorestani, B. and Cheraghi, M. (2011). Effect of the heavy metals on the developmental stages of ovule and seed proteins in Chenopodium botrys L.(Chenopodiaceae). Biological Trace Element Research, 144(1-3), 1142-1149.
Zafar, N., Iqbal, M.Z., Shafiq, M. and Kabir, M. (2019). Effects of Exhaust Pollutants and Garden Soil on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Maize (Zea mays L.) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Asian Journal of Research in Crop Science, 1-7.