نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی - زراعت

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اصلاح نباتات، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

3 استادیار، مرکز تحقیقات زراعی و سیب‌زمینی استان اردبیل، اردبیل، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد بیرجند‌، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

چکیده

این پژوهش به منظور بررسی تأثیر تنش کم‌آبی بر عملکرد، صفات کمی و کیفی هیبریدهای حاصل از تلاقی ارقام تجاری سیب‌زمینی، به مدت دو سال اجرا گردید. هر دو آزمایش به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد‌شده بر پایه طرح کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار در گلخانه شرکت کشاورزی زرع گسترآرتا اردبیل در سال 97-1396 انجام گرفت. فاکتور اصلی شامل سه سطح آبیاری (100، 85 و 70 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه) و فاکتور فرعی شامل 12 جمعیت سیب‌زمینی بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس صفات مورد ارزیابی نظیر تعداد غده در بوته، تعداد ساقه اصلی در بوته، عملکرد غده، درصد ماده خشک، وزن مخصوص غده و درصد نشاسته غده در سطوح آبیاری و هیبریدها نشان داد که بین هیبرید‌های مورد مطالعه از نظر کلیه صفات مورد ارزیابی اختلاف معنی‌داری در سطوح احتمال یک و پنج درصد وجود داشت. به منظور بررسی اختلاف بین سطوح آبیاری باید اذعان داشت از نظر کلیه صفات مورد ارزیابی به جز درصد ماده خشک غده، وزن مخصوص غده و درصد نشاسته غده اختلاف معنی‌دار مشاهده گردید. از نظر اثر دوجانبه سطوح آبیاری × رقم به جز درصد ماده خشک غده، وزن مخصوص غده و درصد نشاسته غده در بقیه صفات اختلافات معنی‌داری مشاهده گردید. تیمار 100 درصد آب قابل استفاده درتلاقی (Luca × Esprit) با میانگین 56/53 تن در هکتار بیشترین عملکرد غده و تیمارهای 85 درصد آب قابل استفاده در تلاقی (Agaria × Esprit) و 70 درصد آب قابل استفاده درتلاقی (Agaria × Esprit) به‌ترتیب با میانگین‌های 17/20 و 70/18 تن در هکتار کمترین عملکرد غده را به خود اختصاص دادند. تلاقی (Banba × Esprit) با میانگین 54/21 درصد بیشترین درصد ماده خشک را داشته و در گروه برتر قرار گرفتند، لذا با در نظر گرفتن این موضوع تلاقی (Banba × Esprit) برای فراوری (چیپس) قابل توصیه می‌باشد. نتایج همبستگی بین صفات مورد ارزیابی تیمارهای آبی نشان داد که در تیمار 85 درصد نیازآبی همبستگی بین عملکرد غده با ماده خشک غده، وزن مخصوص و درصد نشاسته غده در سطح یک درصد معنی دار بود. همبستگی بین تعداد ساقه اصلی در بوته با تعداد غده در بوته با افزایش تنش، منفی و افزایش یافته است.همبستگی منفی و معنی‌داری در هر سه سطح آبیاری 100، 85 و 70 بین درصد ماده خشک غده با وزن مخصوص غده و درصد نشاسته غده مشاهده گردید‌. با توجه به عملکرد بالای غده هیبرید (Luca × Esprit) در هر سه شرایط محیطی پیشنهاد می‌شود در آزمایشات آتی از این هیبرید استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Dehydration Stress on Yield, Quantitative and Qualitative Traits of Hybrids Obtained From Crossbreeding of Commercial Potato Cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Vesali 1
  • Reza Baradaran 2
  • Davood Hassanpanah 3
  • Mohammad Javad Soqa al-Islami 4

1 Ph.D. Student of Plant Breeding, Department of Agriculture and Plant Breeding, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agriculture and Plant Breeding, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Agricultural and Potato Research Center, Ardabil Province

4 Associate Professor, Department of Agriculture and Plant Breeding, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction
Potatoes are a plant sensitive to water stress and are a rich source of carbohydrates, essential nutrients such as fiber, vitamins, minerals, proteins and antioxidants. Drought is one of the most common tensions that has always threatened the production of agricultural products and has affected a large area of the world. Therefore, due to the scarcity of water resources, it is necessary to increase water consumption efficiency in the agricultural sector and to pay more attention to water control and storage methods, including irrigation. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dehydration stress on yield, quantitative and qualitative traits of hybrids obtained from crosses of commercial potato cultivars in Ardabil province.
 
Materials and Methods
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dehydration stress on yield, quantitative and qualitative traits of hybrids resulting from cross-breeding of commercial potato cultivars for two years (2017-97) in the greenhouse of Zare Gostar Arta Agricultural Company in Ardabil province. Split plot experiment Based on a completely randomized design with three replications. The main factor included three levels of irrigation (100, 85 and 70% of the plant's water requirement) and the sub-factor included 12 potato hybrids that were the result of crossing four cultivars Losta, Banba, Spirit and Agria as parents. Statistical calculations were performed using Sas 9.1 and Mini-tab 16 statistical software.
 
Results and Discussion
The results of analysis of variance showed that there was a significant difference in terms of all evaluated traits except main stem diameter, tuber dry matter percentage, tuber specific gravity and tuber starch percentage. In terms of bilateral effect of irrigation levels × cultivars, except for tuber dry matter percentage, tuber specific gravity and tuber starch percentage, significant differences were observed in other traits. Treatment of 100% water usable in the swamp (a Luca × Esprit♂) with an average of 53.56 tons per hectare maximum tuber yield and treatments of 85% water usable in the confluence (♀ Luca × Esprit×) and 65% water usable in the swamp (uc Luca × Esprit♂) with an average of 49.75 and 50.39 tons per hectare, respectively, had the lowest tuber yield. Crossing No. 10 (baBanba × Esprit♀) with an average of 21.52% had the highest percentage of dry matter and along with crosses No. 1, 7 and 9 were in the top group. The results of correlation between the evaluated traits in these three conditions separately showed that in all three water conditions the correlation between tuber yield and tuber weight per plant was positive and significant and at irrigation levels of 100, 85 and 65, respectively ( r= 0.98**, 0.99** and 0.99 **). Percentage of tuber dry matter, tuber specific gravity and percentage of tuber starch had a significant negative correlation with tuber yield and tuber weight per plant at 85% of usable water stress.
 
Conclusion
With this in mind, Cross No. 10 (baBanba × Esprit♀) is recommended among the crosses under evaluation for processing (chips).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry matter
  • Low irrigation
  • Potato population
  • Tuber yield
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