Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Research and Technology Institute of Plant Production, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran Bardsir Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Productions, Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran Bardsir Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran


Nowadayes, due to the increasing use of phosphorus fertilizers in agricultural lands, the salinity of the soil ,along with contamination with heavy elements such as cadmium, has increased sharply. Plants' response to a particular stress is different from when they experience multiple stresses simultaneously. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the simultaneous effect of salinity and cadmium stresses on morphological and physiological characteristics of Kochia.
Materials and Methods
For this purpose, a factorial greenhouse experiment based on a randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted in the educational-research greenhouse of the Faculty of Agriculture, Valiasr University of Rafsanjan in 1397/2019. Experimental factors included four different levels of salinity stress (0, 6, 12 and 18 dS/m) and cadmium concentration in soil (0, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg soil). The studied traits included dry weight of branches, stems and leaves, RWC, concentration of chlorophyll a, b and a + b, enzymes activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, the concentration of cadmium, iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and magnesium.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that due to increasing salinity to 18 dS/m the dry weight of branches, leaf and stem dry weight and leaf area, RWC, concentration of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids decreased by 56.8, 48.01, 50, 46.09, 21, 53.76, 56.91, 53.75 and 51.21 percent, respectively. By increasing the cadmium concentration to 10 mg/L, the dry weight of lateral branches, leaves, stems and leaf area decreased by 24.32, 31.89, 28.45 and 41.24%, respectively, but the concentration of leaf cadmium compared to the control treatment 1.7 times  increased. The activity of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase enzymes in treatment of 18 dS/m salinity alongside with 10 mg/L cadmium were 1.83, 1.4 and 4.7 times higher than the control treatment, respectively. Leaf iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium concentrations decreased by 73.07%, 51.51, 51.8%, 0.17 and 0.26% with increasing salinity stress to 18 dS/m, respectively, and with increasing cadmium concentration to 10 mg/L increased iron concentration by 37.32% and zinc and magnesium concentrations decreased by 28.70 and 0.12%, respectively. The highest dry matter of Koshia in salinity and cadmium stress treatments belonged to the control treatment and the lowest dry matter were obtained from 18 dS / m salinity and 10 mg / kg cadmium in soil.
The results of the present study revealed that in Kochia in the presence of cadmium stress, the concentration of cadmium in the leaves and shoots increased and this indicates the potential of this plant for phytoremediation (removal of heavy metals by the plant) from saline soils contaminated with cadmium. Kochia's proper performance in high cadmium accumulation appears to be due to the detoxification of cadmium in cells. The presence of salinity along with cadmium increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, which is probably one of the plant's solutions to stress. Decreased nutrients due to increased cadmium and salinity stress can be a reason for reduced yield and lead researchers to the direction that in the face of these stresses, nutrients can be used as fertilizer so that the plant does not suffer from nutrient deficiencies.


Main Subjects

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