نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد میوه‌کاری، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

برای بررسی اثر روغن ولک بر خصوصیات گلدهی و بیوشیمیایی دو رقم زیتون، آزمایشی با کرت‌های خرد‌شده بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در 4 تکرار و بر روی درختان 17 ساله زیتون در طی سال 98-1397 در باغ زیتون دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز به انجام رسید. ارقام زیتون (مانزانیلا و خضیری) و غلظت‌های روغن (صفر، 1، 3 و 5 درصد)، به‌عنوان فاکتورهای اصلی و فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد، در رقم مانزانیلا پس از محلول‌پاشی روغن ولک در غلظت 3 و 5 درصد (به‌ترتیب 8/31 و 7/28 روز پس از تیمار) گلدهی اتفاق افتاد و در رقم خضیری در هیچ یک از غلظت‌های روغن ولک، گلدهی مشاهده نشد. کربوهیدارت جوانه پس از محلول‌پاشی درختان با روغن در هر سه غلظت افزایش معنی‌داری پیدا کرد. رقم خضیری با غلظت 3 درصد روغن ولک بالاترین میزان کربوهیدرات جوانه (68/78 میلی‌گرم بر گرم) را داشت. بکارگیری روغن ولک بر هورمون اسید آبسیزیک (ABA) در رقم مانزانیلا مؤثر واقع شد و تأثیر آن در غلظت 3 و 5 درصد (به‌ترتیب 1/83 و 4/105 میکروگرم بر گرم) مشاهده شد. میزان پرولین هر دو رقم پس از کاربرد روغن ولک در هر سه غلظت و تا 60 روز بعد از اعمال تیمار افزایش یافت و میزان کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b و کلروفیل کل پس از گذشت 30 روز از اعمال تیمار افزایش و سپس کاهش پیدا کرد. بنا‌بر نتایج از روغن ولک با غلظت 3 درصد می‌توان برای گلدهی رقم مانزانیلا در شرایط آب و هوایی اهواز استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Volck Mineral Oil Spraying on Flowering and Biochemical Characteristics of Two Olive Cultivars under Ahvaz Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sara Davoodi 1
  • Shohreh Zivdar 2
  • Esmaeil Khaleghi 3

1 M.Sc. Student of Horticultural Science, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction
Olive (Olea europaea L.) is an evergreen tree and one of the most important products of the horticultural section in Iran due to high nutritional value of its oil and fruits. Adaptation of olive cultivars to the climatic conditions of different regions are not the same. The results of studies showed that special cultivars are recommended for each region. In tropical and subtropical climates with mild winter such as Ahvaz, the chilling requirement of olive trees is not completed. This condition has led to poor and insufficient flowering in some olive cultivars. Mineral oils, including volck oil are one of the most beneficial treatments to complete chilling requirement and bud break in fruit trees. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of two olive cultivars (Manzanilla and khaziri) to the application of volck mineral oil and studying their flowering and biochemical characteristics in Ahvaz condition.
 
Materials and Methods
In this experiment, the effect of volck mineral oil spraying [control (water spray), 1, 3, 5 %] on two olive cultivars were investigated. The experimental design was split plot arranged in complete block design with four replications. Measured traits included flowering characteristics such as the number of inflorescences in the branch, flowers in inflorescence, complete flowers, flowering days after treatments, percentage of flower fall, fresh and dry weight of flower and inflorescence. Biochemical properties such as bud carbohydrates and ABA, leaf proline and chlorophyll were measured.
 
Results and Discussion
The results showed that foliar application of 3 and 5 % volck oil caused flowering (31.8 and 28.7 days after treatment, respectively) in Manzanilla cultivar. Bud carbohydrate content increased significantly after tree spraying with volck oil in all of three concentrations. The highest content of bud carbohydrates (78.68 mg/g) was obtained in khaziri when treated with 3% volck oil. The use of volck oil was effective in increasing the ABA concentration in Manzanilla cultivar and its effect was as 3 and 5% volck oil (83.1 and 105.4 µg/g, respectively). The amount of proline in both cultivars increased until 60 days after applying three concentrations of volck oil. The levels of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll increased until 30 days after treatment and then were decreased. Volck oil (3%) can be used for flowering of Manzanilla cultivar in climatic conditions of Ahvaz. Based on the obtained results, it seems that the effect of volck oil on flowering and biochemical traits depends on the type and concentration of mineral oil and type of the cultivar. In the present study, flowering occurred when Manzanilla cultivar treated with mineral volck oil (3 and 5%) and the flowering traits were improved at 3% oil more than other treatments.
 
Conclusion
According to the obtained results, olive cultivars show different reactions to the use of Volck oil, and Volck oil with a concentration of 3% can be used for the flowering of Manzanilla cultivar in the weather conditions of Ahvaz.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • ABA
  • Carbohydrate
  • Proline
  • Volck
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