بررسی عملکرد و ویژگی‌های کیفی سیب‌زمینی در کشت زودهنگام در شرایط آب و هوایی مشهد

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه اگروتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

2 گروه بقولات، پژوهشکده علوم گیاهی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، ایران

3 عضو هیئت علمی دانشکده کشاوزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

کشت زودهنگام سیب‌زمینی برای کاهش خلاء تولید این محصول در انتهای فصل بهار در ایران دارای اهمیت می‌باشد. به منظور امکان تولید سیب‌زمینی با کشت‌زود هنگام با استفاده از آزمایش کرت‌های خردشده در قالب بلوک‌ کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال 95-1394 در مشهد اجرا شد. چهار تاریخ‌ کاشت، 15 اسفندماه، 29 اسفندماه، 15 فروردین‌ماه و 15 اردیبهشت‌ماه به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و سه رقم سیب‌زمینی اگریا، فونتانه و سانته به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. در رقم اگریا و فونتانه با تأخیر در کاشت سطح‌ برگ افزایش در رقم سانته تا 15 فروردین روند کاهشی و پس‌از‌آن افزایشی بود. تعداد غده در بوته با تأخیر در کاشت از 15 اسفندماه تا 15 اردیبهشت‌ماه اگریا، فونتانه و سانته به ترتیب51، 72 و 83 درصد کاهش یافت. بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد کل غده به‌ترتیب در فونتانه در تاریخ‌ کاشت 15 اسفندماه و 29 اسفندماه با اختلاف 14594 کیلوگرم در هکتار مشاهده شد. درصد ماده ‌خشک غده در اگریا با تأخیر در کاشت روند صعودی داشت، در فونتانه این روند تا تاریخ‌ کاشت 15 فروردین‌ماه افزایشی و پس‌ازآن کاهش یافت، اما در سانته بیشترین و کمترین درصد ماده خشک به‌ترتیب در تاریخ ‌کاشت 15 اسفندماه (13/22) و 29 اسفند (50/18) به‌دست آمد. در تاریخ کاشت 15 اردیبهشت‌ماه بیشترین مقدار درصد نشاسته و آنتی‌اکسیدانت کل در اگریا و فونتانه مشاهده شد ولی در رقم سانته بیشترین مقدار این ویژگی‌ها به‌ترتیب در تاریخ کاشت 15 فروردین‌ماه و 29 اسفندماه به‌دست آمد. به‌طورکلی سانته نسبت به کاشت زودهنگام واکنش بهتری نشان داد عملکرد بیشتری تولید کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating of yield and quality characteristics of potato with early cultivation in Mashhad weather conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Nezami 1
  • Jafar Nabati 2
  • Mohammad Kafi 3
  • Javad Shabahang 1
1 Department of Arotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
2 Department of Legum, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Research Center for Plant Sciences, Iran
3 Department of Arotechnology, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives: Determination of the most suitable time for crop planting is one of the basic requirements to gain the highest yield and income. Planting date is one of the most important factors in growth, development and yield production in potato planting effects of temperature fluctuations on growth and tuber abnormality and inappropriate quality comes from the special features of the that region being uncontrolled by farmers.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 2015-2016 in research station of Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad as split-plot based on Complete Randomized Block Design with three replications. Treatments were combination of four planting dates (March 5th, March 19th, April 3th and May 4th) as main plot and three potato cultivars (Agria, Fontane and Sante) as sub-plots. Harvesting was done 90 days after 50% of emergence.
Results and Discussion: Number of stem per plant as one of the effective potato yield components was not affected by planting date. Results indicated that as planting date was delayed from March 5th to May 4th, leaf area index was increased by 64 and 85% in two cultivars of Agria and Fontane while a decreasing trend of this parameter was observed in Sante. Number of tubers per plant was decreased by delaying planting date from March 5th to May 4th except in Fontane in which number of tubers per plant was increased in April 3th and was reduced thereafter. The highest and lowest tuber yield with a difference of 12391kg.ha-1was found in April 3th and March 19th, respectively and was observed in Fontane cultivar. Tuber dry matter percentage of Agria was increased as planting date delayed while it was increased till April 3th and reduced in Fontane. The highest (22.13) and lowest (18.50) tuber dry matter percentage of Sante was found in March 5th and 19th, respectively. An increasing trend of potato tuber specific weight was observed with delaying planting date in a way that the highest and lowest mean of this parameter was found in March 19th and May 4th, respectively. No significant difference was observed between Agria and Fontane in different planting dates according to reduced sugars content of tubers. Total antioxidant and starch of potato tubers was increased in all three cultivars as planting date was delayed and reduction sugar decreased by delayed in planting date.
Conclusion: Late planting dates were better than early plantings. Sante showed a better performance in early planting dates compared to the two other cultivars, producing more marketable tubers with higher quality and dry matter percentage. Generally, it could be concluded that in Mashhad weather conditions, Sante is more appropriate for early planting compared to Agria and Fontane but its superiority is lost when planting date is delayed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry matter percentage
  • Reduction sugar
  • Starch
  • Total antioxidant