تأثیر دو سامانه بدون خاک‌ بر خصوصیات فیزیکی، شیمیایی و عملکرد میوه دو رقم گوجه‌فرنگی گلخانه‌ای

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

2 گروه باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران

3 هیئت علمی

4 گروه آموزشی آبیاری و زهکشی

چکیده

تأثیر دو سامانه کشت بدون خاک‌ باز (آبیاری قطره‌ای) و بسته (تکنیک جریان مواد غذایی تغییر یافته) بر خصوصیات فیزیکی، شیمیایی و عملکرد میوه دو رقم گوجه‌فرنگی گلخانه‌ای (22-4V و امیرا) طی سال 1398 در دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. آزمایش به صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصافی با سه تکرار به اجرا در آمد. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد که طول میوه، سفتی بافت و غلظت کلسیم میوه در سامانه کشت بدون خاک باز بهتر شد و مواد جامد محلول، لیکوپن، کاروتنوئید و غلظت سدیم میوه در سامانه کشت بدون خاک بسته بهتر بود. مقدار ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی و غلظت مواد فنولی و غلظت کلسیم و سدیم میوه در رقم امیرا بهتر بود و مقدار اسیدیته قابل تیتراسیون در رقم 22-4V بهتر شد. محصول میوه در رقم22-4V (29/3874 گرم در بوته) نسبت به رقم امیرا (70/3648 گرم در بوته) بهتر شد. اثر متقابل سامانه کشت بدون خاک و رقم بر غلظت پتاسیم و منیزیم میوه در سطح 1 درصد و ماده خشک میوه در سطح 5 درصد اختلاف معنی‌داری داشت. ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی میوه و پلی‌فنول کل با غلظت پتاسیم میوه همبستگی مثبت داشتند. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش سامانه کشت بدون خاک بسته و رقم امیرا باعث افزایش کیفیت میوه گردید و رقم 22-4V باعث افزایش عملکرد درکشت گلخانه‌ای شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of two hydroponic systems on physical, chemical and fruit yield of two greenhouse tomato cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohamad Reza Fayezi 1
  • Naser Alemzadeh Ansari 2
  • Esmail Khaleghi 3
  • Mohamad Albaji 4
1 Dep. of horticulture. Shahid chamran University of Ahvaz
3 Dept. of horticulture, shahid Chamran university of Ahvaz
4 Dept. of Irrigation
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Tomato is an economical high value product which is used fresh or processed. Having compound such as fibers, vitamin A, vitamin B, lycopene, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and polyphenols in this product leads to prevent the cancer and cardiovascular diseases. Even though biosynthesis and accumulation of this biochemical matter in tomato fruit when growing is affected by the production conditions such as methods of production environmental factors and plant genetics. Tomatoes produced in a closed hydroponic system have better flavor and marketability. This research is done to show the affects to the physical and chemical characteristics and productivity of two greenhouse tomato cultivars in two open and closed systems.
Materials and Methods
In this research the effects of two open (drip) and closed (modified nutrient film technique) hydroponic systems on physical and chemical characteristics and productivity of two greenhouse tomato cultivars (V4-22 cultivar breaded in Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz and Amira cultivar from Rijkzwaan company of Netherland) was studied as split plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in agricultural faculty of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. The information gathered and correlation between characteristics were analyzed statically by MSTAT-C 1.2 software. To compare the means, Duncan's multi domain test in 5% level was used. Some of the quantitative and qualitative characteristics include productivity, fruit length, fruit diameter and fruit volume, fruit firmness, pH, titratable acidity, total soluble solid, fruit dry matter, lycopene, fruit carotenoids, antioxidant capacity, polyphenols content, concentration of fruit elements such as potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium were analyzed.
Results
The results of the experiment showed that the most fruit length, fruit firmness, and calcium concentration were recorded in the plants cultivated in open system and the highest total soluble solid, lycopene, carotenoids and fruit sodium concentration were seen in the closed system. The most antioxidant capacity, polyphenols content, concentration of calcium and sodium were observed in Amira cultivar and the most titratable acidity was recognized in V4-22 cultivar. The maximum yield belonged to V4-22 cultivar (3847/29 g per plant) and minimum yield belonged to Amira cultivar (3648/70 g per plant). The interaction effect of hydroponic system and cultivar on concentration of magnesium and potassium in 1% level and dry matter in 5% level were significantly different. The correlation between Antioxidant capacity, fruit total soluble solids content, vitamin C, lycopene and polyphenols content with potassium concentration was positive and significant.
Discussion
The results showed that V4-22 cultivar had higher yield than Amira cultivar and this is due to the adaptation of this cultivar to the environmental conditions of Ahvaz greenhouse. In this study, crop yield in both open and closed systems was not significantly different and the closed system increased the quality characteristics of fruit including total soluble solids, lycopene and carotenoids compared to the open system. This can be due to the most availability of nutrient solution in the closed system compared to the open system. The lowest capacity of antioxidant and total polyphenols were obtained in V4-22 cultivar. The decrease in production of these secondary metabolites indicates that this cultivar is more compatible with production conditions

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fruit lycopene and carotenoids
  • Antioxidant capacity
  • total polyphenols