ارزیابی جمعیت علف‌های هرز و برداشت عناصر غذایی تحت تأثیر شخم و مدیریت تلفیقی در مزرعه گندم در اهواز

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد اگروتکنولوژی، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

4 دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز

10.22055/ppd.2021.34868.1938

چکیده

چکیده
جهت بررسی جمعیت علف‌های هرز و میزان جذب عناصر غذایی توسط گندم و علف‌های هرز در کشت گندم این پژوهش به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه آموزشی پژوهشی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز در سال زراعی 98-1397 اجرا شد. خاک‌ورزی در سه سطح شامل شخم مرسوم، شخم حداقل و بدون شخم به‌عنوان کرت اصلی و مهار علف‌های هرز در شش سطح بدون مهار، وجین دستی، علفکش بروموکسینیل + ام سی پی آ، بقایای گیاهی+آتلانتیس، آتلانتیس و متریبیوزین به‌صورت پس رویشی در کرت‌های فرعی، بر روی گندم رقممهرگان اعمال شدند. با توجه به نتایج، بیشترین جمعیت علف‌های هرز در سیستم بدون شخم مشاهده شد. همچنین در تیمار بدون مهار، بیشترین جمعیت علف‌های هرز با میانگین 3/16، 2/14 و 5/12 بوته در متر‌مربع به‌ترتیب در بازه زمانی 30، 60 و 90 روز پس از کاشت مشاهده شد. بررسی برهم‌کنش تیمارهای آزمایشی نشان داد که در هر سه سیستم شخم، بیشترین میزان نیتروژن، فسفرو پتاسیم جذب‌شده توسط علف‌های هرز در تیمار بدون مهار بود، که به واسطه تولید ماده خشک بیشتر و رقابت بالاتر با گیاه گندم به‌صورت تصاعدی افزایش یافت. با توجه به نسبت بالاتر جمعیت علف‌های هرز در سیستم بدون شخم در مقایسه با سیستم شخم مرسوم، به نظر می‌رسد مهار علف‌های هرز در روش بدون شخم و شخم حداقل در اهواز از نظر کاهش هدررفت رطوبت، تخریب ساختمان خاک و برداشت عناصر غذایی توسط علف‌های هرز، سیستم شخم مناسبی در زراعت گندم می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Weed Population and Nutrient Uptake by Wheat as Influenced by Different Tillage Practices and Weed Management Options in Ahvaz

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahim Nor Aftab 1
  • Ali Monsefi 2
  • Afrasiyab Rahnama Ghahfarokhi 3
  • Amir Aynehband 4
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Agrotechnology, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Associated Professor, Department of Plant Production Engineering and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Plant Production Engineering and Genetics Department. Faculty of Agriculture. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Iran.
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Weeds often pose severe constraints in the potential yield of wheat, if not controlled at a critical period of the first 30 days after sowing. Several methods are developed to control weeds, viz. cultural, mechanical, and chemical have their own merits and demerits. Tillage is an age-old practice to control weeds. Tillage influences weed infestation, and thus interactions between tillage and weed control practices are commonly observed in crop production. Good tillage delays the emergence of weeds and provides a more favorable environment for early crop establishment. So, the competition for nutrients will be less.
 
Materials and Methods
This study was conducted to investigate the weed population and evaluate the nutrients uptake by wheat and weed in a split-plot design with three replications in the research farm of the Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz in the year 2018-19. Tillage at three levels, including conventional tillage, minimum tillage, and zero tillage, as the main plot and weed control at six levels (uncontrolled, hand weeding, bromoxynil + MCPA herbicide, crop residue + Atlantis, Atlantis, and metribusin) as Post-emergence were considered in sub-plots applied on wheat of Mehregan cultivar.
 
Results
In terms of the weed population, the highest weed population was observed in the zero tillage compared to conventional tillage and minimum tillage. In this regard, under uncontrolled treatment, the highest weed populations with an average of 16.3, 14.2, and 12.5 plants per square meter were observed at 30, 60, and 90 days after sowing, respectively. In the case of an interaction effect, it was found that in all three tillage systems, the highest amount of nutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, absorbed by weeds was in the uncontrolled treatment. The reason was due to higher dry matter production and higher competition with wheat as it was incremental.
 
Discussion
In general, considering the higher weed population in the zero tillage as compared to the conventional tillage, it seems that weed control in the zero tillage and minimum tillage, at least in Khuzestan province, is preferable to prevent moisture content and soil structure. Nutrient depletion by weed is less in conservation tillage so that nutrient availability will be as much as plant requirements.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Atlantis
  • Conventional tillage
  • Crop residue
  • Metribuzin
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