Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran


Salinity stress is one of the environmental factors limiting the growth of plantsand has a negative effect on their physiological processes. The harmful effects of salinity appear in plants in various ways such as death or reduction of production. Artichoke is a plant with lowdemand and resistance to salinity. The Artichoke is a perennial plant; the height of the stem is about 2 meters. Its leaves are wide, long and white in color. One of the pillars of sustainable agriculture is the use of nano fertilizersin crop ecosystems to remove or reduce the use of chemical input. Using nano fertilizers Compared to traditional fertilizerscan lead to benefits like efficiency and quality increase due to high absorption velocity, prevention of leaking waste, availability even during growth and complete absorption by plants because of appropriately fast nutrition release, reduction of plants toxicity and any other stress deriving from high concentration of local salty areas in soil, yield increase due to efficient nutrition condition of plants. Salinity stress disturbs nutritional balance in plants. Iron is one of the essential elements in plants. The balanced consumption of this element increases the yield and quality of plants.Using micronutrients through soil or sprayingimproves plant growth under stress conditions. Foliar application of elements, which prevents soil contamination, is a useful method for rapidly absorbing elements in plants.
Material and methods:
In order to investigate the effects of salinity and nanosilver on morphological and physiological traits of artichoke, a factorial experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications in the greenhouse of Zabul University Institute. Salinity stress in 3 levels (0, 6, and 12 mM) and nanosilver spraying in 3 levels (0, 40, and 80 mM) were considered as treatments. The nanosilver spraying was performed at seedling stage (6-8 leaves).The control was distilled water. Application of salinity stress began in the seedling stage and continued until sampling. Sampling and evaluation of the fresh weight plant, and fresh and dry weight of root were done at the beginning of the flowering. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed by SAS software (version 9.1) based on all data. Then means of results were compared with LSD test at P < 0.05 level.
Results and discussion:
The main effects of salinity stress, nanosilver and their interaction on all traits were significant at 1% probability level. Maximum numbers of leaves (5 numbers), fresh weight of plant, fresh and dry weight of root (8.82, 5.93, 0.64 g per plant, respectively) and plant height were obtained by using nanosilver and lack of salinity.
Nanosilver foliar application reduced the effects of salinity and increased the physiological and morphological characteristics of Artichoke.


Main Subjects

Abe, N., Murata, T., & Hirota, A. (1998). Novel DPPH radical scavengers, bi sorbicillinol and demethyl trichodimerol, from a fungus. Biotechnol Biochem, 62, 661-666.
Ahmad, P., & Prasad, M. N. V. (2012). Abiotic stress responses in plants: Metabolism, productivity and sustainability. New York: Springer.
Ahmadi, F., Kadivar, M., & Shahedi, M. (2007). Antioxidant activity of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff in model and food systems. Food Chemistry, 105(1), 57-64.
Al-Zubaidi, A. H. (2018). Effects of salinity stress on growth and yield of two varieties of eggplant under greenhouse conditions. Research on Crops, 18(2), 1533-1540.
An, J., Zhang, M., Wang, S., & Tang, J. (2008). Physical, chemical and microbiological changes in stored green asparagus spears as affected by coating of silver nanoparticles-PVP. Food Science and Technology, 41(6), 1100-1107.
Bahmani, M., Naghdi, R., & Kartoolinejad, D. (2018). Milkweed seedlings tolerance against water stress: Comparison of inoculations with Glomus intraradices and Pseudomonus putida. Environmental Technology and Innovation, 10, 111-121.
Chen, C., Wang, C., Liu, Z., Liu, X., Zou, L., Shi, J., Chen, S., Chen, J., & Tan, M. (2018). Variations in physiology and multiple bioactive constituents under salt stress provide insight into the quality evaluation of Apocyni Veneti Folium. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 19(10), 3042-3058.
Dibrov, P., Dzioba, J., Gosink, K. K., & Hase, C. C. (2002). Chemiosmotic mechanism of antimicrobial activity of Ag+ in Vibrio cholerae. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 46(8), 2668-2670.
Dilnur, T., Peng, Z., Pan, Z., Palanga, K.K., Jia, Y., Gong, W., & Du, X. (2019). Association analysis of salt tolerance in Asiatic cotton (Gossypium arboretum) with SNP markers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(9), 2168-2188.
  Ekhtiari, R., Mohebi, H. R., & Mansouri, M. (2011). Investigating the effects of nanosilver particles on salinity tolerance of fennel (Foeniculumvulgare Mill.) In early growth at laboratory conditions. Journal of Plant and Ecosystem, 7(27), 55-62.
Eraslan, F., Inal, A., Gunes, A., & Alpaslan, M. (2007). Boron toxicity alters nitrate reductse activity, proline accumulation, membrane permeability and mineral constituents of tomato and Pepper plants. Journal Plant Nutrition, 30(6), 981-994.
Gubbins, E. J., Batty, L. C., & Lead, J. R. (2011). Phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles to Lemna minor L. Environmental Pollution, 159(6), 1551-1559.
Hafsi, C., Lakhdar, A., Rabhi, M., Debez, A., Abdelly, C., & Ouerghi, Z. (2007). Interactive effect of salinity and potassium availability on growth, water status, and ionic composition of Hordeum maritimum. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170(4), 469-473.
Hand, M. J., Taffouo, V. D., Nouck, A. E., Nyemene, K. B. L., Tonfack, L. B.,  Meguekam, T. L., & YoimbiI, E. (2017). Effects of salt stress on plant growth, nutrient partitioning, chlorophyll content, leaf relative water content, accumulation of osmolytes and antioxidant compounds in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Cultivars. Notulae Botanicae Horti Agrobotanici Cluj-Napoca, 45(2), 481-490.
Haslam, E. (2005). Practical polyphenolics: From structure to molecular recognition and physiological action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hediat, M., & Salama, H. (2012). Effects of silver nanoparticles in some crop plants, Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). International Research Journal of Biotechnology, 3(10), 190-197.
Hong, Z., Lakkineni, K., Zhang, Z., & Verma, D. S. (2000). Removal of feedback inhibition of 1-pyrrolin-5- carboxylate synthetas resalts in increased prolin accumulation and prodaction of plant from osmotic stress. Plant Physiology, 122(4), 1129-1136.
Irrigoyen, J. H., Emerich, D. W., & Sanchez Diaz, M. (1992). Water stress induced changes in concentration of proline and total soluble sugars in nodulated alfalfa plant. Physiologia Plantarum, 84(1), 55-66.
Javadi, H., Seghatoleslami, M. J., & Mousavi, S.Gh. (2014).Effect of salinity on seed germination and early seedling growth of four medicinal plant species. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Research, 12(1), 53-64. [In Farsi]
Kocal, N., Sonnewald, U., & Sonnewald, S. (2008). Cell wallbound invertase limits sucrose export and is involved in symptom development and inhibition of photosynthesis during compatible interaction between tomato and Xanthomonas campestris pv. Vesicatoria. Plant Physiology, 148(3), 1523-1536.
  Krishnaraj, C., Jagan, E., Ramachandran, R., Abirami, S., Mohan, N., & Kalaichelvan, P. (2012). Effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles on Bacopamonnieri (Linn.) Wettst. plant growth metabolism. Process Biochemistry, 47(4), 651-658.
Krizek, D. T., Britz, S. J., & Mirecki, R. M. (1998). Inhibitory effect of ambient levels of solar UV-A and UV-B radiation on growth of cv. New red fire lettuce. Physiologia Plantarum, 103(1), 1-7.
Mohanpuria, P., Rana, N. K., Kumar Yadav, S. (2008). Biosynthesis of nanoparticles: technological conceptsand future applications. Journal Nanoparticle Research, 10, 507-517.
Munns, R., & Tester, M. (2008). Mechanisms of salinity tolerance. Plant Biolgcal. 59, 651-81.
Najafi, S., & Jamei, R. (2014). Effect of silver nanoparticles and Pb (NO3)2 on the yield and chemical composition of mung bean (Vigna radiata). Journal of Stress Physiology & Biochemistry, 10(1), 316-325.
Najafi, S., Heidari, R., & Jamei, R. (2013). Influence of silver nanoparticles and magnetic field on phytochemical, antioxidant activity compounds and physiological factors of Phaseolus vulgaris. Technical Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 3, 2812-2816.
Popova, L., Ananieva, E., Hristova, V., Christov, K., Georgieva, K., Alexieva, V., & Stoinova, Z. H. (2003). Salicylic acid-and methyl jasmonate-induced protection on photosynthesis to paraquat oxidative stress. Journal Plant Physiology, 2003, 133-152.
Rajaei, S. M., Niknam, V., Seyedi, S. M., Ebrahimzadeh, H., & Razavi, K. (2009). Contractile roots are the most sensitive organ in Crocus sativus to salt stress. Biology Plantarum, 53(3), 523-529. [In Farsi]
Rezvani, N., Sorooshzadeh, A., & Farhadi, N. (2012). Effect of nano-Silver on growth of saffron in flooding stress. World Academy of Science Engineering and Technology, 6(1), 11-16.
Rustami, F., & Ehsanpour, A. A (2010). The effect of silver thiosulfate (STS) on chlorophyll content and the antioxidant enzymes activity of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.). Journal of Cell and Molecular Research, 2(1), 29-34.
Sairam, R. K., & Tyagi, A. (2004). Physiology and molecular biology of salinity stress tolerance in plants. Current science, 86(3), 407-421.
Salama, H. M. H. (2012). Effects of silver nanoparticles in some crop plants, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and corn (Zea mays L.). International Research Journal of Biotechnology, 3(10), 190-197.
Salehi Sourmaqi, M. H. (2007). Medicinal plants and herbs, (1st ed. Vol. I), Tehran. World Food Publishing. [In Farsi]
Schutz, K., Kammerer, D., Carle, R., & Schieber, A. (2004). Identification and quantification of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) heads, juice, and pomace by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS (n). Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry, 52(13), 4090-4096.
Senjen, R. (2007). Nanosilver- a threat to soil, water and human health? Friends of the Earth Australia.
Shams al-Din., S., & Farahbakhsh, H. 2009. The Effect of Salinity on Yield and Some Agronomical and Physiological Traits of Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Cultivars in Kerman. Plant Productions, 32(1), 13-25. [In Farsi]
Shams, G., Ranjbar, M., & Amiri, A. (2013). Effect of silver nanoparticles on concentration of silver heavy element and growth indexes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 15(5), 1-12.
Shams, H., Ghoshchi, F., & Kasraie, P. (2015). The effect of foliar silver nano particles on yield and yield components sweet corn under water deficit stress. Iranian Journal of Dynamic Agriculture, 12(1), 13-21. [In Farsi]
Sharma, P., Bhatt, D., Zaidi, M. G., Saradhi, P. P., Khanna, P. K., & Arora, S. (2012). Silver nanoparticlemediated enhancement in growth and antioxidant status of Brassica juncea. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 167(8), 2225-2233.
Singleton, V. L., & Rossi, J. A. (1965). Colorimetry of total phenolics with hosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents. American Journal Enology and Viticulture, 16(3), 144-158.
Sobhi, O. A., Al-Zahrani, H. S., & Al-Ahmadi, S. B. (2006). Effect of Salinity on Chlorophyl and Carbohydrate Contents of Calotropis procera Seedlings. Scientific Journal of King Faisal University, 7(1), 105-115.
Suri-yaprabha, R., Karunakaran, G., Yuvakkumar, R., Prabu, P., Rajendran, V., & Kannan, N. (2012). Growth and physiological responses of maize (Zea mays L.) to porous silica nanoparticlesin soil. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 14, 1294-1296.
Zarei, L., Koushesh Saba, M., Vafaee, Y., & Javadi, T. (2018). Effect of gamma-amino-butyric acid foliar application on physiological characters of tomato (cv. Namib) under salinity stress. Plant Productions, 41(1), 15-28. [In Farsi]
Zhang, F., Li X., Wang, C. and Shen, Z. (2000). Effect of cadmium on antoxidation rate of tissue and inducing accumulation of free proline in seedlings of mung bean. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 23(3), 356-368.
Zhong, M., Wang, Y., Zhang, Y., Shu, S., Sun, J., & Guo, S. (2019). Overexpression of transglutaminase from cucumber in tobacco increases salt tolerance through regulation of photosynthesis. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 20(4), 2-17.
Zhu, X., Zhang, H., & Lo, R. (2004). Phenolic compounds from the leaf extract of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) and their antimicrobial activities. Journal Agriculture Food Chemistry, 52(24), 7272-8.
© 2021 Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0 license) (