نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

2 دانشیار، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی، گیاهان دارویی و علوم دامی، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه کشاورزی، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

4 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه زراعت، واحد بیرجند، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، بیرجند، ایران

چکیده

به‌ منظور بررسی تأثیر محلول‌پاشی متانول و تنش کم‌آبی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد آفتابگردان رقم پروگرس، آزمایشی در سال 1396 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مرکز آموزش علمی کاربردی جهاد کشاورزی خراسان جنوبی در بیرجند به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. دو سطح تنش کم‌آبی شامل: آبیاری مطلوب (80 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک) و تنش کم‌آبی (160 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک) به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و پنج سطح محلول‌پاشی متانول شامل: محلول‌پاشی با آب (شاهد)، 7، 14، 21 و 28 درصد حجمی به‌عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تنش کم‌آبی قطر ساقه، تعداد دانه در طبق و نسبت وزن مغز به پوست دانه را کاهش داد. محلول‌پاشی متانول نیز باعث افزایش تعداد دانه در طبق شد. هم‌چنین، محلول‌پاشی متانول موجب بهبود اکثر صفات مورد مطالعه در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب و تنش کم‌آبی شد. به‌طوری‌که در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی محلول‌پاشی با متانول 28 درصد حجمی موجب افزایش ارتفاع بوته (9/9 درصد)، قطر ساقه (5 درصد)، تعداد برگ در بوته (7/14 درصد) و محلول‌پاشی با متانول 14 درصد حجمی موجب افزایش عدد کلروفیل‌متر (8 درصد) و محلول‌پاشی با متانول 21 درصد حجمی موجب افزایش هدایت روزنه‌ای (7/34 درصد)، وزن هزار دانه (12 درصد)، عملکرد دانه (9/27 درصد) و عملکرد زیستی (4/23 درصد) نسبت به شاهد (محلول‌پاشی با آب) شد. بر اساس نتایج این آزمایش، حداکثر عملکرد دانه آفتابگردان در منطقه بیرجند با محلول‌پاشی متانول 28 درصد حجمی و در شرایط آبیاری مطلوب به دست آمد، اما در شرایط تنش کم‌آبی، محلول‌پاشی با متانول 21 درصد حجمی جهت جلوگیری از کاهش عملکرد دانه در این منطقه مناسب بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات

عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Methanol Spraying on some Morphophysiological Characteristics, Yield and Yield Components of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under Drought Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamed Javadi 1
  • Seyyed Gholam Reza Moosavi 2
  • Mohammad Javad Seghatoleslami 3
  • Ali Reza Ebrahimi 4
  • Mohammad Kozegar 4

1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University (PNU), Iran

2 Associate Professor, Agricultural, Medicinal Plants and Animals Sciences Research Center, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Agricultural, Medicinal Plants and Animals Sciences Research Center, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran

4 M.Sc. Graduate of Agronomy, Department of Agriculture, Birjand Branch, Islamic Azad University, Birjand, Iran

چکیده [English]

Introduction
Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is one of the five important oil plants of Iran. Water deficit stress is one of the most important limiting factors in sunflower cultivation. Methanol is used to deal with environmental stresses, especially dehydration. Preventing or reducing light respiration, delaying leaf senescence, increasing photosynthetic activation period and leaf area duration index and increasing CO2 fixation are among the roles of methanol application in plants. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effect of methanol spraying on some morphophysiological characteristics, yield and yield components of sunflower under drought stress conditions.
 
Materials and Methods
This field experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Birjand, Iran, in 2017. The main plots included two irrigation levels (irrigation after 80 and 160 mm evaporation form class A pan). On the other hand, the sub- plots included five levels of methanol spraying; control (spraying with water), 7, 14 and 21% v/v. Statistical analysis was performed using MSTATC software. Duncan's multiple range test at the 5% level of probability was used to compare the means.
 
Results and Discussion
Results showed that deficit irrigation reduced stem diameter, number of grains per head and kernel/husk weight ratio. Methanol spraying also increased the number of grains per head. Also, methanol spraying improved most of the studied traits under two irrigation treatments. So that under drought stress conditions, foliar application with 28% volumetric methanol increased plant height (9.9%), stem diameter (5%) and leaf number per plant (14.7%). Compared with control, foliar application with 14% and 21% volumetric methanol increased SPAD by 8% and 34.7%, respectively and also, increased 1000-grain weight (12%), grain yield (27.9%) and biological yield (23.4%). According to the results, under optimum irrigation conditions, maximum sunflower grain yield was obtained with 28% volumetric methanol spraying, but under drought stress conditions, spraying with 21% volume methanol was the best one.
 
Conclusion
The results showed that foliar application of methanol under optimum and also deficit irrigation conditions did not affect the percentage and yield of sunflower oil seed, but increased grain yield. Maximum grain yield under optimum irrigation was obtained with 28% volumetric spraying, which was 27% more than control. Also, the results showed that under arid and semi-arid conditions of Birjand, deficit irrigation with using methanol (21% volumetric) produces acceptable grain yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • SPAD
  • Oil percentage
  • Stomatal conductance
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