ارزیابی نقش کم آبیاری و تغییر تراکم بوته بر کارایی مصرف آب و عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت دانه‌ای (S.C 704)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

10.22055/ppd.2020.30499.1797

چکیده

چکیده
به منظور ارزیابی نقش کم آبیاری و تغییر تراکم بوته بر کارایی مصرف آب و مؤلفه‌های تولیدی ذرت دانه‌ای، آزمایشی در تابستان سال 1396 در منطقه ویس، واقع در شمال اهواز به‌صورت اسپیلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار به مرحله اجرا گذاشته شد. کرت‌های اصلی به‌صورت آبیاری جوی و پشته‌ها به‌طور کامل (شاهد)، آبیاری یک در میان جوی و پشته‌ها به‌صورت ثابت تا پایان دوره رشد و آبیاری یک در میان جوی و پشته‌ها به‌صورت متغیر و کرت‌های فرعی شامل تراکم‌های مختلف کاشت (65، 75 و 85 هزار بوته در هکتار) بود. نتایج نشان داد که اثر روش‌های مختلف کم آبیاری بر طول کچلی بلال، تعداد دانه در بلال، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیکی، شاخص برداشت و کارایی مصرف آب در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار بود. تراکم‌های کاشت از نظر طول کچلی بلال، تعداد دانه در بلال، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیکی و کارایی مصرف آب در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار شد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در آبیاری کامل (6858 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و در تراکم 85 هزار بوته در هکتار (6159 کیلوگرم در هکتار) مشاهده شد. بیشترین کارایی مصرف آب در آبیاری یک در میان جوی و پشته‌ها به‌صورت متغیر (33/17 درصد) و در تراکم 85 هزار بوته در هکتار (52/15 درصد) به‌دست آمد. در مجموع می‌توان گفت که برای رسیدن به کارایی مصرف آب و عملکرد مطلوب در جهت استفاده بهینه از منابع آب و هم‌چنین کاهش تلفات آبیاری، آبیاری یک در میان جوی و پشته‌ها به‌صورت متغیر با تراکم 85 هزار بوته در هکتار ذرت دانه‌ای مناسب به نظر می‌رسد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assessment of the Role of Low Irrigation and Change in Plant Density on Water Use Efficiency and Yield and Yield Components of Maize (S.C 704)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Haleh Badvan 1
  • Mojtaba Alavi Fazel 2
1 M.Sc. Student of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate Professor Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Introduction
Water is the first and the most important limitation in increasing agricultural production. Topical root dryness is a new method of low irrigation, which improves the water utilization efficiency, without significantly reducing the yield of the plant. Maize is a plant that is very sensitive to plant densities, and if the density is low, then the factors of exploitation are not optimized. On the other hand, excessive plant density causes flower sterility and reduced grain yield. Therefore, this experiment aims to investigate the role of low irrigation and plant density changes on the water use efficiency and grain yield components of corn.
 
Materials and Methods
The experiment design was implemented as a split plot design in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plots Include: 1- full furrow irrigation (control), 2- furrow irrigation in the form of a fixed and 3-variable furrow irrigation. Sub plots include different planting densities: 65,000, 75,000, and 85,000 plants per hectare.
 
Results and Discussion
The results showed that different low irrigation methods had significant effects on ear tick length, number of seeds per ear, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and water use efficiency. Differences among plant densities in terms of ear tick length, number of seeds per ear, 1000 grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and water use efficiency were significant. The highest grain yield was observed in full irrigation (6858 kg ha-1) and at a density of 85,000 plants per hectare (6159 kg ha-1). The highest water consumption efficiency was obtained in irrigation as variables (17.33%) and at 85,000 plants per hectare (15.52%). Single plant yield decreased at 85 thousand plants, but this deficit was compensated by increasing plant number per unit area and grain yield increased. Single plant yield increased by 65 thousand plants. But because of the less plant per unit area, its yield decreased. Grain yield increased by about 14% in irrigation of one side of the variable compared with one in the constant. Changes in performance components are expected to trigger these changes. With increasing plant density per unit area, water use efficiency also increased, which is due to more cover and less shade and evaporation from the ground. Plant density per unit area also affects water use efficiency by reducing evaporation and increasing the share of transpiration that results in high yield. Water use efficiency in treatments with intermittent furrow irrigation was higher than constant furrow irrigation.
 
Conclusion
The full furrow irrigation (control) method was able to obtain the highest yield and grain yield components. As a result, in one irrigation in between fixed and variable, 25 and 12% reduction in yield was observed compared to full irrigation, respectively. 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Corn
  • Grain yield
  • optimum density
  • Water deficit
  • Water use efficiency
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