Document Type : English Articles


1 Assistant Professor, National Salinity Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yazd, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Land Management, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

3 Professor, Department of Land Management, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia


Introduction:Acidification of high pH soils by elemental sulphur application is introduced for increasing plant nutrient availability and improving plant performance. The present study was aimed to elucidate the effect of elemental sulphur timing and application rates on soil Ca release, Ca concentration in maize and its relationship with maize yield.
Materials and Methods:Bintang Series soil was treated with four rates of elemental sulphur (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g S kg-1 soil) and incubated for 0, 20, and 40 days before maize plantation. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with factorial arrangement and carried out in University Putra Malaysia. Soil samples were provided before and after the maize plantation and were extracted for nutrient analysis. The nutrients in the solution were determined by an inductively coupled plasma spectrometer.
Results and Discussion: The results exhibited that application of elemental sulphur significantly decreased soil pH and it increased soil Ca, Mn and Zn availability for plants. In addition, the results showed that soil acidification by elemental sulphur decreased Ca concentration in maize root, stem and leaves and it is due to the antagonistic effects of Mn and Zn on Ca uptake by maize.
Conclusion: Overall, the maximum maize performance was obtained at Ca concentration of 0.75, 1 and 1.4 percent in maize leaves, stem and roots, respectively.


Main Subjects

Bolan, N. S., Adriano, D. C., & Curtin, D. (2003). Soil acidification and liming interactions with nutrientand heavy metal transformationand bioavailability. Advances in Agronomy, 78(1), 215-272. doi: 10.1016/S0065-2113(02)78006-1
Chambers, B. J., Cross, R. B., & Pakeman, R. J. (1996). Recreating lowland heath on ex-arable land in the Breckland environmentally sensetive area. Aspects of Applied Biology, 44(1), 393-400. Doi: 10.1097/SS.0b013e31821f0816
Chien, S. H., Gearhart, M. M., & Villagarcia, S. (2011). Comparison of ammonium sulfate with other nitrogen and sulfur fertilizers in increasing crop production and minimizing environmental impact: a review. Soil Science, 176(7), 327-335. Doi:    10.1097/SS.0b013e31821f0816
Cui, Y., Dong, Y., Li, H., & Wang, Q. (2004). Effect of elemental sulphur on solubility of soil heavy metals and their uptake by maize. Environment International, 30(3), 323-328. doi: 10.1016/S0160 4120(03)00182-X
De la Fuente, C., Clemente, R., & Bernal, M. P. (2008). Changes in metal speciation and pH in olive processing waste and sulphur-treated contaminated soil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 70(2), 207-215. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv. 2007.05.021
Faltmarsch, R. M., Astrom, M. E., & Vuori, K. M. (2008). Environmental risks of metals mobilised from acid sulphate soils in Finland: a literature review. Boreal environment research, 13(5), 444-456. doi: 10138/234824
Hlavay, J., Prohaska, T., Weisz, M., Wenzel, W.
W., & Stingeder, G. J. (2004). Determination of
trace elements bound to soil and sediment fractions (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure
and Applied Chemistry
, 76(2), 415-442. doi: 10.1351/pac200476020415
Jashni, R.,  Fateh, E., & Aynehband, A. (2017). Effect of Thiobacillus and Nitrocara Biological Fertilizers and Foliar Application of Zinc and Iron on Some Qualitative Characteristic and Remobilization of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Plant Production, 40(1), 1-17. doi: 10.22055/ ppd.2017.12067. [In Farsi with English abstract]
Jones, J. B. (2001). Laboratory guide for conducting soil tests and plant analysis. Washington, D.C.: CRC Press.
Karimizarchi, M., & Aminuddin, H. (2015). Effect of elemental sulphur on soil micronutrients mobility. Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, 1(3), 34-42. doi:10.3923.133.141.
Karimizarchi, M., Aminuddin, H., Khanif, M. Y., & Radziah, O. (2016). Effect of elemental sulphur timing and application rates on soil P release and concentration in maize. Pertanika. Journal of Tropical Agriculture Science. 39 (2), 235-248. doi: 10.13140/RG.2.1.5155.8003
Karimizarchi, M., Aminuddin, H., Khanif, M. Y. Radziah, O. (2014b). Incorporation and transformations of elemental sulphur in High pH soils of Malaysia. International Journal of Soil Science, 9(3), 133-141. doi:10.3923/ijss.2014.133.141
Karimizarchi, M., Hussin, A., Bin Yusop, M. K., & Radziah, O. (2014a). Elemental sulphur application effects on nutrient availability and sweet maize (Zea mays L.) response in a High pH soil of malaysia. Malaysian Journal of Soil Science, 18(1), 75-86. doi: doi:10.3923.133.141.
Khan, T. A., & Mazid, M. (2011). Nutritional significance of sulphur in pulse cropping system. Biology and Medicine, 3(2), 114-133. doi: 10.3923/.133.141.
Klikocka, H. (2011). The effect of sulphur kind and dose on content and uptake of micro-nutrients by potato tubers (Solanum tubersosum L.). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Hortorum Cultus, 10(2), 137-151. doi: 10.3923/ijar.2011.143.148
Lambers, H., Chapin, F. S., & Pons, T. L. (2008). Plant physiological ecology. New York: Edward Arnold Ltd.
Lindsay, W. L. (1979). Chemical equilibria in soils. New York: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
Lockwood, P. V., Daniel, H., & Wilson, B. R. (2004). Soil acidification in relation to salinisation and natural resource management. 13th International Soil Conservation Organisation Conference-Brisbane.
Marschner, H., & Marschner, P. (2012). Marschner's mineral nutrition of higher plants (Vol. 89): London: Academic Press.
Mohammadi, H., Heidari, G. R., & Sohrabi, Y (2020). The Effects of Biological and Chemical Nitrogen Fertilizers and Iron Micronutrient on Forge Quality and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Productions, 43(2), 185-198. doi: 10.22055/ppd.2019.27736.1678. [In Farsi with English abstract]
Owen, K. M., Marrs, R. H., Snow, C. S. R., Evans, C. E. (1999). Soil acidification-the use of sulphur and acidic plant materials to acidify arable soils for the recreation of heathland and acidic grassland at Minsmere, UK. Biological Conservation, 87(1), 105-121. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(98)00027-5
Pendias, A. K. (2001). Trace elements in soils and plants. Washington, D.C.: CRC Press.
Safaa, M. M., Khaled, S. M., & Hanan, S. (2013). Effect of Elemental Sulphur on Solubility of Soil Nutrients and Soil Heavy Metals and Their Uptake by Maize Plants. Journal of American Science, 9(12), 19-24. doi: 10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00182-X
Sameni, A. M., & Kasraian, A. (2004). Effect of agricultural sulfur on characteristics of different
calcareous soils from dry regions of Iran. I. Disintegration rate of agricultural sulfur and its effects on chemical properties of the soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 35(9-10), 1219-1234. doi: 10.1081/CSS-120037541
Shenker, M., & Chen, Y. (2005). Increasing iron availability to crops:Fertilizers, organo-fertilizers, and biological approaches. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 51(1), 1-17. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0765.2005.tb00001.x
Skwierawska, M., Nogalska, A., Skwierawski, A. (2012a). Changes in the concentrations of available Zinc and Copper in soil fertilized with sulfur. Journal of Elementology, 17(3), 495-504. doi: 10.5601/jelem.2012.17.3.11.
Skwierawska, M., Zawartka, L., Skwierawski, A., Nogalska, A. (2012b). The effect of different sulfur doses and forms on changes of soil heavy metals. Plant, Soil and Environment-UZEI, 58.
Viani, R. A. G., Rodriguesb, R. R., Dawsonc, T. E., Lambersd, H., & Oliveira, R.S. (2014). Soil pH accounts for differences in species distribution and leaf nutrient concentrations of Brazilian woodland savannah and seasonally dry forest species. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 16(2), 64-74. j.ppees.2014.02.001
Wang, A. S., Angle, J. S., Chaney, R. L., Delorme, T. A., & Reeves, R. D. (2006). Soil pH effects on uptake of Cd and Zn by Thlaspi caerulescens. Plant and Soil, 281(1-2), 325-337. doi: 10.1007/ s11104-005-4642-9
Ye, R., Wright, A. L., &  J. M. McCray, (2011). Seasonal changes in nutrient availability for sulfur -amended everglades soils under sugarcane. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 34(14), 2095-2113. doi: 10.1080/00103620903173772