Document Type : English Articles


1 Ph.D. Candidate in Plant Physiology, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan, Mollasani, Iran


Introduction:To evaluate the effects of priming and defoliation on some physiological traits of two safflower cultivars, a factorial experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications in the research farm of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan in the crop years of 2017 and 2018.
Materials and Methods:The experimental factors consisted of two cultivars of safflower (Esfahan local and Sofeh cultivars) and three levels of priming with [Salicylic acid (SA) 0.9 milli molar, polyethylene glycol (PEG)- 6000 (-10 MPa)] and control at two defoliation levels (without defoliation and 50% defoliation in lower parts of plant).
Results and Discussion:The results showed that the defoliation and priming treatments had significant effects on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and carotenoid content, in such a way that the priming with salicylic acid and polyethylene glycol was associated with a significant decrease in chlorophyll a (34.54%) and chlorophyll b (42.59%); although, the content of carotenoid increased in defoliation and priming with PEG (38.22), carotenoid was decreased in the treatment of defoliation and priming with salicylic acid. Defoliation treatment significantly (28.11%) increased the activity of ascorbate peroxidase in comparison to the control.
Conclusion: Generally, the results showed that the highest enzyme activity of ascorbate peroxidase (29.26%) was observed in the first year of priming with polyethylene glycol. The highest amount of catalase activity (27.45%) was also observed in Isfahan local cultivar and salicylic acid priming under 50% defoliation. The amount of Malondialdehyde decreased in priming with PEG, however, it increased (33.1%) in priming with salicylic acid and 50% defoliation treatment.


Main Subjects

Abdalla, M. M., & El-Khoshiban, N. H. (2007). The influence of water stress on growth, relative water content photosynthetic pigments, some metabolic and hormonal contents of two Triticum aestivum cultivars. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3(12): 2062-2074.
Ahmadi, A., & Siose Marde, A. (2004), Effect of drought stress on soluble carbohydrates, chlorophyll and proline in four wheat cultivars adapted to different climatic conditions of Iran. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 35(3), 753-763. [In Farsi with English abstract]
Alinaghizadeh, M., Movahedi Dehnavi, M., Faraji. H., Dehdari, A., & Azimi Gandomani, M.( 2010.) The Effect of Sowing Dates on Yield, Yield Components and Oil Content of Different Spring Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) Cultivars as Double Crop in Yasouj Region. Plant Productions, 33(1), 1-14. [In Farsi with English abstract]
Amanulla, M. M., Sekar, S., & Vincent, S. (2010). Plant growth substances in crop production. Asian Journal of Plant Science, 9(4), 215-222. doi: 10.3923/aips.2010.215.222
Arab, S., Baradaran, M., & Asgari, H. R. (2016). The Effect of Ascorbic Acid and Sodium Nitroprusside Foliar Application on Photosynthetic Pigments and Some Traits of Spring Safflower under Water Deficit Stress. Plant Productions, 38(4), 93-104. [In Farsi with English abstract]
Arvin, M. J., Bideshki, A., Keramat, B., & Maghsoudi, K. (2011). Study of the role of salicylic acid in drought stress through changes in morphological and physiological parameters in garlic, 7th Congress of Agricultural Sciences, Isfahan University. doi: 10.22077/escs.2018.1022.1202
Ashley, R.O., E.D. Eriksmoen, M.B. Whitney and B. R. (2002). Sunflower date of planting study in western North Dakota. Annual Report, Dickinson Research Extension.48.
Ashraf, M., & Ali, Q. (2008). Relative membrane permeability and activities of some antioxidant enzymes as the Key determinants of salt tolerance in canola (Brassica napus L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany, 63, 266-273.
Ashraf, M., & foolad, M. R. (2005). Pre–sowing seed treatment-A shotgun approach to improve germination growth and growth and crop yield under saline and none-saline conditions. Advanced Agronomy, 88, 223-271.
Azooz, M. M., Youssef, A. M., & Parvaiz, A. (2011). Evaluation of salicylic acid (SA) application
on growth, osmotic solutes and antioxidant enzyme activities on broad bean Seedlings grown under diluted seawater. Journal of Physiology
and Biochemistry, 
3(14), 253-264.doi: 10.5897/IJPPB11.052
Badpa, K., Movahhedi Dehnavi, M., & Yadaviranian, A. (2016). IResponse of safflower (carthamus
 tinctorius l. cv. soffe) seed germination under cadmium nitrate stress to salicylic acid priming. Journal of Seed Research, 2(2), 179-185. doi: 10.1007/s00425-006-0423-9. [In Farsi with English abstract]
Beckers, G. J. M., & Spoel, S. H. (2006). Fine‐tuning plant defence signalling: salicylate versus jasmonate. Plant Biology, 8(1), 1-10. doi: 10.1055/s-2005-8727058
Belkhadia, A., Hedijia, H., Abbesa, Z., Nouairib, I., Barhoumic, Z., Zarroukb, M., Chaïbia, M., & Djebalia, W. (2010). Effects of exogenous salicylic acid pre-treatment on cadmium toxicity and leaf lipid content in Linum usitatissimum L. Ecotoxicology
and Environmental Safety
, 73(5), 1004-1011.   doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv. 2010.03.009.
Borsani, O., Valpuesta, V., & Botella, M. A. (2001). Evidence for a role of salicylic acid in the oxidativedamage generated by NaCl and osmotic stress in Arabidopsis seedling. Journal of Plant Physiology, 126, 1024-1030.
Coronado, M. A. G., Lopez, C. T., & Saavedra, A. L. (1998). Effects of salicylic acid on the growth of roots and shoots in soybean. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 8, 563-565.
Daneshmand, F., Arvin, M., & Keramat, B. (2011). Salicylic acid induced changes in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under salinity stress. Journal of Plant Research (Iranian Journal of Biology), 27(2), 215-204.
Dat, J. F., Lopes Delgado, H., Foyer, C. H., & Scot, I. M. (1998). Parallel changes in H2O2 and catalase during thermotolerance induced by salicylic acid or heat acclimation in mustard seedlings. Journal of Plant Physiology, 116(4), 1351-1357.
Ding, C., & Want, C. Y. (2003). The dual effects of methyl salicylate on ripening and expression for ethylene biosynthetic genes in tomato fruits. Journal of Plant Molecular Breeding: Plant Science, 164(2003), 589-596.
Dual, L., & Tuong, T. P. (2002). Enhancing the performance of dry seed rice: effects of seed priming, seedling rate, and thme of seedling. I Direct seeding: research strategies and opportunities. Proceedings. Metro Manila
El-Tayeb, M. A. (2005). Response of barley grains to the interactive effect of salinity and salicylic acid. Plant Growth Regulation, 215-225.
Emam, Y., & Seghatoeleslami, M. J. (2005). Crop yield, physiology and processes. Shiraz: Shiraz University Press.
Fazeli, A., Zarei, B., & Tahmasebi, Z. (2018). The effect of salinity stress and salicylic acid on some physiological and biochemical traits of Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) Iranian Journal of
Plant Biology, 9(4), 69-83, 
doi: 10.22108/IJPB. 2018.104605.1029. [In Farsi with English abstract]
Ghamarnia, H., & Gowing, J. W. (2005). Effect of water stress on three wheat cultivars. ICID 21st European Regional Conference. 15-19 May, Frankfurt (oder) and Slubice-Germany and Poland.
Hajihashemi, S. H., Kiarostami, K. H., Saboora, A., & Enteshari, S. H. (2007). Exogenosely applied paclobutrazol modulates growth in salt-stressed wheat plants. Journal of Plant growth Regulation, doi: 10.22059/ijfcs.2007.218159.654199.
Jiang, Y., & Huang, B. (2002). Protein alterntions
 in tall fescue in responses to drought stress
and abscisic acid. Crop Science, 42(2) doi: 10.2135/cropsci2002.0202
Kasano, H., Shigematsu, H., Mashiyama, H., Iwata, Y., Kasatani, H., & Terauchi, H. (1994). Reinvestigation of Low-Temperature Phase Transitions in Rb2ZnBr4. Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 63(5), doi:10.1143/JPSJ.63.1681
Keshavarz, H., Modares Sanavi, A. M., Zarrin Kamar, F., Dolatabadian, A., Panahi, M., & Sadat Osilan, K. (2011). Effect of foliar application of salicylic acid on some biochemical properties of two rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) cultivars under cold stress conditions, Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences, 42(4), 734-723.
Khajehpour, M. (2012). Industrial plants. Isfahan: Jihad University (Isfahan University of Technology). [In Farsi with English abstract]
Khan, W., Prithviraj, B., & Smith, D. L. (2003). Photosynthetic responses of corn and soybean to foliar application of salicylates. Journal of Plant Physiology, doi: 10.1078/0176-1617-00865
Kovacik, J., Gruz, J., Backor, M., Strand, M., & Repcak, M. (2009). Salicylic acid induced changes to growth and phenolic metabolism in Matricaria chamomilla plant. Plant Cell Reports, 28(1), 135-143. doi:10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.02.001-149.
Lee, B. H., Henderson, D. A., & Zhu, J. K. (2005). The Arabidopsis cold-responsive transcriptome and its regulation by ICE1. The Plant Cell, 17(11), 3155-3175.
Lichtenthaler, H. K. (1987). Chlorophll and carotenoids: pigments of photosynthetic bio membranes. Methods in Enzymology, 148, 350-382.
Mahdavi, B., Modarres Sanavy, S. A. M., Aghaalikhani, M., Sharifi, M., & Dolatabadian, A. (2011). Chitosan improw osmotic potential tolerance in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Seedlings. Journal of Crop Improvement, 25(6), 728-741. doi:10.1080/15427528.2011.606354
Mazaheri Tirani, M., & Manuchehri Kalantari, Kh. (2007). Effect of salicylic acid on some growth and biochemical parameters of rapeseed under drought stress. Journal of Isfahan University, 28(2), 55-66, doi: 10.1093/jxb/erj196
Mure, J., Irigoyen, I., Milition, A. F., & Lamsfus, C. (2001). Defoliation effects on sunflower yield reduction. Agronomy Journal, 93(1), 634-637.
Nakano, Y., & Asada, K. (1987). Purification of ascorbate peroxidase in spinach chloroplast: in inactivation in ascorbate-mdepleted medium and reactivation by mono dihydrogen ascorbate radical. Plant Cell Physiology, 28(1), 131-140.
Ohe, M., Rapolu, M., Mieda, T., Miyagawa, Y., Yabuta, Y., Yoshimura, K., & Shigeoka, S. (2005). Decline in leaf photooxiadtive-stress tolerance with age in tobacco. Plant Science, 168, 1487-1493. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2005.01.020
Pirasteh, H., Emam, Y., Ashraf, M., & Foolad. M. R. (2012). Exogenus application of salicylic acid chlormequat chloride alleviates negative effects of drought stress in wheat. Advanced Studies in Biology, 4(11), 501-520.
Poordad, S. (2003). Safflower. Tehran: Sepehr Publications. [In Farsi with English abstract]
Prisco, J. T., Baptista, C. R., & Pinhero, E. J. L. (1992). Hydration, Dehydration seed. Pre-treatment and its effects on seed germinathon underwater strees. Brasilian Journal of Botany, 29(12), 2143-2152. doi: 10.3906/bot-1206-1
Rampino, P., Pataleo, S., Gererdi, C., Mita, G.
and Perrotta, C. (2006). Drought response in wheat: physiological and molecular analysis
of resistant and sensitive genotypes. Plant,
Cell & Environment
, 29(12):2143-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2006.01588.x
Read, D., & Kar, R. K. (1994). Seed germination and seedling grow of mange bean (vadiata) under water stress induced by PEG6000. Seed Science & Technology. 23, 301-308. doi:10.1590/S0103-90162011000200001
Sabok Dast Nodehi, M., Khialparast, F. (2007), Investigation of some biochemical and physiological changes of drought resistance in three chickpea cultivars. Journal of Agricultural Science, 30(2), 71-80.
Sairam, R. K., Deshmukh, P. S., & Saxna, D. C. (1998). Role of antioxidant systems in wheat genotype tolerance to water stress. Biologia Plantarum, 41(3), 387-394.
Scheer, H. (2004). Chlorophills and carotenoids. Encyclopedia of Biological Chemistry, 1, 430-433.
Senaratna, T., Merrit, D., Dixon, K., Bunn, E., Touchell, D., & Sivasitham Param, K. (2003). Benzoic acid may act as the functional group in salicylic acid and derivatives in the induction of multiPle stress tolerance in plants. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 39, 77-81. doi: 10.1023/A:1021865029762
Shatpathy, P., Kar, M., Kumar Dwibedi, S., & Dash, A. (2018). Seed priming with salicylic acid improves germination and seedling growth of
rice (oryza sativa l.) under peg-6000 induced water stress. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, (7)10, 2319-7706. doi: 10.20546/ijcmas.2018.710.101
Slaymarker, D. H., Navarre, D. A., Clark, D., Pozo, O. D., Martin, G. B., & Klessig, D. F. (2002). The tobacco salicylic acid- banding Protein 3 (SABP3) is the chloroplast carbonic anhydrase, which exihibition antioxidant activity and Plays a role in the hyPersensitive defense resonse. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(18), 11640-11645. doi: 10.1073/pnas.182427699
Sofa, A., Dichio, B., Xiloyannis, C., & Masia, A. (2004). Effects of different irradiance levels on malondialdehyde content during rewatering in olive tree. Plant Science, 166, 293-302. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2003.09.018
Stewart, C. R. (1980). The mechanism of abscisic acid- induced proline accumulation in barley leaves. Plant Physiology, 66(2), 230-233. doi: 10.1104/pp.66.2.230
Syros, T., Yupsanis, T., Petkou, D., & Economou, A. S. (2005). Protein, leucine aminopeptidase, esterase, acid phosphatase and photosynthetic responses of Oleander (Nerium Oleander L.) during cold acclimation and freezing treatments. Journal of Plant Physiology, 162(1), doi: 10.1016/j.jplph. 2004.10.011
Taiz, L., & Zeiger, E. (2002). Plant Physiology. Massachusetts, UnitedStates: Sinecure Associates Inc.
Terzi, R., Saglam, A., Kutlu, N., Nar, H., & Kadioglu, A. (2010). Impact of soil drought stress on photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activities of Phaseolus vulgaris cultivars. Turkish Journal of Botany, 34, 1-10. doi: 10.3906/bot-0905-20
Vahid, A., Parveen, M., Geiani, S., & Basra, S. M. A. (2007). Pretreatment of seeds with H2O2 improves salt toierance of wheat seedling by alleviation of oxidative damage and expression of stress proteins. Journal of Plant Physiology, 164, 283-294. doi:10.1590/S1677-04202010000200004
Valko, M. M. H.C. M., Morris, H., & Cronin, M. T. D. (2005). Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress. Current Medicinal Chemistry, 12(10), 1161-1208. doi: 10.2174/0929867053764635
Watanabe, S., Kojima, K., Ide, Y., & Sasaki, S. (2000). Effects of saline and osmotic stress on proline and sugar accumulation in Populus euphratica in vitro plant cell. Tissue and Organ Culture, 63(3), 199-206. doi: 10.1023/A:1010619503680
Zhu, X., Gong, H., Chen, G., Wang, S., & Zhang, C. (2005). Different solute levels in two spring wheat cultivars induced by progressive field water stress at different developmental stages. Journal of Arid Environments, 62, 1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaridenv. 2004.10.010