Document Type : Research Paper - Horticulture


1 1- Associate Professor, Sugar Beet Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran

2 Researcher, Sugar Beet Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran

3 Instructor, Sugar Beet Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Sugar Beet Research Department, Khorasan Razavi Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Mashhad, Iran

5 Assistant Professor, Sugar Beet Seed Institute, AREEO, Karaj, Iran


Rhizomania viral disease is one of the limiting factors of sugar beet cultivation and significantly reduces its yield. The most important way to deal with this disease is to use resistant cultivars.
Materials and Methods
In order to evaluate the correlation between yield and qualitative traits of sugar beet cultivars with rhizomania disease indices, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 12 different sugar beet cultivars in four replications in test site with natural infection with rhizomania in Torbat-e-Jam area at two years (2017 and 2018). The traits studied in this study included root yield, sugar content, sugar yield, white sugar content, white sugar yield, sodium, potassium, trace nitrogen, alkalinity, sugar extraction coefficient, leaf growth score, root growth score, disease severity and ELISA test index (OD). Analysis of variance was performed using SAS v.9.1 statistical software. Mean comparisons of traits were performed using LSD test at the probability level of 5 and 1%.  
Results and Discussion
Analysis of variance showed significant differences among genotypes for all studied traits except for sodium. Cluster analysis of yield, crop quality as well as rhizomania severity of infection divided the sugar beet cultivars into three groups (resistant, semi-resistant and sensitive). Correlation between traits in a rhizomania infected field and different levels of resistance to rhizomania was different. In all cultivars with different levels of resistance, there was a significant correlation between pure sugar yield with leaf growth score (r=0.88 **), root growth score (r=0.85**), disease severity (r= -0.84 **) and ELISA index (r= -0.67 **) was observed. Therefore, these traits are suitable indicators for evaluation of cultivars for suseptibility or resistance to rhizomania disease. In addition, correlation between ELISA index with disease severity (r=0.83**), leaf growth score (r= -0.61 **) and root growth score (r= -0.67 **) was significant.
According to the obtained results, because the ELISA test and determining the virus concentration is expensive, and on the other hand, this index had a positive and very significant correlation with the severity of the disease infection, so the disease severity index can be used to evaluate cultivars for resistance to rhizomania disease.


Main Subjects

Abdollahian Noghabi, M., Sheikholeslami, R., & Babaei, B. (2005). Terms and definitions of technological quantity and quality of sugar beet. Journal of Sugar Beet, 21‌(1), 101-104. [In Farsi]
Asher, M. J. C., & Kerr, S. (1996). Rhizomania: Progress with resistance varieties. British Sugar Beet Review, 64, 19-22.
Asher, M. J. C., Chwarszczynska, D. M., & Leaman, M. (2002). The evaluation of rhizomania resistant sugar beet for the UK. Annual Appleid Biology, 141‌(2), 101-109.
Biancardi, E., Lewellen, R. T., DeBiaggi, M., Erichsen, A. W., & Stevanato, P. (2002). The origin of rhizomania resistance in sugar beet. Euphytica, 12 (3), 383-397.
Darabi, S., Bazrafshan, M., Babaee, B., & Mahmoodi, S.B. (2017). Impact of rhizomania virus (beet necrotic yellow vein virus) on sugar beet yield and qualitative characters. Applied Research Medical Plant, 6(3), 67-82. [In Farsi]
Draycott, A.P. (2006). Sugar beet. London, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publishing Co. Ltd.
Fathi, M.R., Vahedi, S., Bazrafshan, M., Shabazi, H.A., & Abodlahian Noghabe, M. (2013). Development of sugar beet hybrids carrying rhizomania resistance gene and comparison of their performance and quality. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal, 29(4), 777-789. [In Farsi]
Garcia-Vila, M., Morillo-Velarde, R., & Fereres, E. (2019). Modeling sugar beet responses to rrigation with AquaCrop for optimizing water allocation. Water, 11(1918), 1-15.
Izadpanah, K., Hashemi, P., Pakniat, R., Sahanpour, M., & Masoumi, M. (1996). Extensive existence of oot beard disease (rhizomania) in Fars. Journal of Plant Pathology, 32‌(3), 200-206. [In Farsi]
Lewellen, R. T., & Biancardi, E. (1990). Breeding and performance of rhizomania resistant sugar beet. Proceedings of the 53th IIRB Congress, Brussels. pp. 69-87.
Luterbacher, M., Asher, M. J. C., Beyer, W., Mandolino, G., Scholten, O. E., Frese, L., … & Slyvchenko, O. (2005). Sources of resistance to diseases of sugar beet in related beta germplasm: Soil borne diseases. Euphytica, 141(1), 49-63.
Mahmoudi, S. B., Ghanbari, M., Amiri, R., Darabi, S., Kakuei nejad, M., Aghaee zadeh, M., & Hasani M. (2012). Relative levels of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in susceptibl e to resistant genotypes of sugar beets during growing season. Journal of Sugar Beet, 28(1), 1-6. [In Farsi]
McGrann, G. R. D., Grimmer, M. K., Mutasa-Gottgens, E. S., & Stevens, M. (2009). Progress towards the understanding and control of sugar beet rhizomania disease. Molecular Plant Pathology, 10(1), 129-141.
Mohammadian, R., Mahmoudi, S. B., Shabazi, H. A., Darabi, S., & Pedram, A. (2016). Performance of sugar beet hybrids in different levels of rhizomania disease severity. Plant Productions, 39(2), 27-42. [In Farsi]
Pferdmenges, F., Korf, H., & Varrelmann, M. (2009). Identification of rhizomania-infected soil in Europe able to overcome Rz1 resistance in sugar beet and comparison with other resistance-breaking soils from different geographic origins. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 124‌(1), 31-43.
Poimenopoulou, E. (2017). Molecular characterization of soilborne viruses infecting sugar beet in Europe and USA. Independent project in Biology, 60 hp, EX0778 Examensarbete / Institutionen för växtbiologi, SLU Uppsala. Nr: 159. Plant Biology-Master’s Programme.
Radivojevic, S., Kabic, D., Filipovic, V., & Jacimovic, G. (2008). Yield and technological quality of modern sugar beet varieties in the republic of SERBIA. Food and Feed Research Journal, 35(2), 53-58.
Rezaei J, Bannayan M, Nezami A, Mehrvar M, & Mahmoodi B, (2015). Growth analysis of rhizomania infected and healthy sugar beet. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 12(4), 683-692. [In Farsi]
Rezaei, J., Banayan Aval, M., Nezame, A., & Mahmoodi, B. (2014). Physiological behavior in response to sugar beet rhizomania virus. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 28(1), 138-146. [In Farsi]
Romesborg, H.C.(1990).Cluster analysis for researches, R.K. Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida, 9-25.
Rush, C.M., Liu, H.Y., Lewellen, R.T., & Acosta-Leal, R. (2006). The continuing saga of rhizomania of sugar beets in the United State. Plant Disease, 90(1), 4-15.
Salarian, A., Pouresmaeil, P., & Tarighaleslami, M. (2014). A comparison of quantitative and qualitative yield on some resistant cultivars to rhizomania disease of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) into qualification of alloy and unspotted to rhizomania. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 4(1), 177-185.
Scholten, O. E., & Lang, W. (2000). Breeding for resistance to rhizomania in sugar beet: A review. Euphytica, 112(3), 219-231.
Tamada, T. (1999). Benyviruses. In R.G. Webster, A. Granoff (Eds.). Encyclopedia of virology (2nd ed. p.154-160). London, UK: Academic Press.
Todefallah, M., Arjmand, N., & Mahmoudi, S. B. (1999). Study on infection condition and extension of sugar beet rhizomania disease in Iran. Proceedings of 14th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, Isfahan Industrial University Isfahan, Iran. [In Farsi]
Vahedi, S., Shahbazi , H., Bazrafshan, M., Noshad, H., & Fasahat, P. (2017). Evaluation of yield related traits in sugar beet multigerm hybrids resistant to rhizomania disease. Seed and Plant Improvment Journal, 32 (4), 543-556. [In Farsi] 
Whitney, E. D. (1989). Identification, distribution, and testing for resistance to rhizomania in beet maritima. Plant Disease, 73(4), 287-290.
Wisler,G. C., Lewellen, R. T., Sear,J. L., Wasson, J. W., Liu, H. Y., & Duffus, J.E. (1999). Specificity of TAS-ELISA for beet necrotic yellow vein virus and its application for determining rhizomania resistance in field grown sugar beet. Plant Disease, 83‌(9), 864-870.