عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives
Usually, pomegranate fruit in humid areas is under attack from fungal diseases. In addition to damage to the skin of the fruit, it also reduces qualities and reduces marketable look losing. Fruit cracking is another physiological disorder that causes a lot of damage to the crop and Causing irreparable damage to gardeners. Control of these diseases is very difficult, and the use of recommended treatments also has different outcomes. Finding the right solution by applying nutritional and spraying methods can greatly reduce the damage.
Materials and Methods
This research was conducted in the summer of 2017 in a commercial garden in Sorkh city, 10 km from Sari city with a latitude of 53 degrees and 17 minutes and a latitude of 36 degrees and 61 minutes, and a height of 9 meters from the sea level. This research was carried out in a randomized complete block design with the aim of investigating the effects of copper, silicon, Vermiwash and Rovral TS on the quality of pomegranate fruit of Shavar cultivar. Experimental factors consisted of 1- mineral nutrition (in four levels of control, copper nano-chelate (one per thousand), 2- silicon (one per thousand), 3- copper-silicon (two per thousand) and 4- fungicide (in two levels of vermin wash (15 per cent) and 5- Rovral TS (one per thousand). Foliar application was performed in 4 treatments at intervals of 15 days and fungicidal treatments were carried out at 3 times intervals of 20 days. And then began morpho-physiological studies.
The results of this experiment showed that the highest amount of flower conversion to fruit and the highest amount of dry weight (49.78 g) were obtained in vermiwash and silicon treatments. The least amount of fruit contamination was observed in the application of Rovral TS, vermin wash, copper and silicon. Simultaneous treatment of silicon and copper significantly increased fruit size. The combined treatment of silicon, copper and silicon alone led to a decrease in the number of cracked fruits compared to the control. The highest amount of anthocyanin pigment was observed in vermin wash, silicon and copper treatments. The percentage of free radical controller in all treatments was higher than control.
Overall, the results of this experiment showed that vermicompost, copper and silicon alone improved the traits studied. Silicon is naturally present as a compound of the cell wall and hardly bonds with the cell wall mass, thereby resisting cracking. Silicon also has a fungicidal effect, as has been reported in plants such as rice and cucumbers that delay the development of pathogens such as Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum after treatment with silicon. It has also been reported that the use of vermiwash in various plants was able to control up to 93% of the disease.