اثر تراکم بوته بر شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک و فنولوژیک ژنوتیپ‌های یولاف زراعی (Avena sativa L.) در شرایط اقلیمی اهواز

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 استادیار، موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، کرج، ایران

10.22055/ppd.2019.24683.1561

چکیده

چکیده
آزمایش حاضر در سال زراعی 93-1392 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز با هدف بررسی شاخص‌های رشد و درجه روز رشد ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف یولاف تحت تراکم‌های مختلف کاشت در شرایط مزرعه‌ایی به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای این آزمایش شامل پنج ژنوتیپ یولاف زراعی و سه تراکم کاشت (300، 400 و 500 بوته در مترمربع)، بود. درجه روز رشد هر یک از مراحل رشدی گیاه بر اساس سیستم BBCH، با استفاده از آمار روزانه دما محاسبه گردید. تیمارهای مورد بررسی اثرات متفاوتی بر شاخص‌های رشد و صفات فیزیولوژیک نظیر سرعت رشد گیاه (CGR)، سرعت رشد نسبی (RGR)، سرعت جذب خالص (NAR)، محتوای کلروفیل برگ، عدد کلروفیل‌ متر و عملکرد ماده خشک داشتند. نتایج مقایسه میانگین داده‌ها نشان داد که در بین ژنوتیپ‌های مورد بررسی یولاف، در مرحله خمیری دانه، ژنوتیپ V2 دارای بیشترین میزان شاخص‌های NAR،RGR ، و CGR بهترتیب با میانگین 40/1 گرم بر مترمربع در روز، 0015/0 گرم بر گرم در روز و 34/6 گرم در مترمربع در روز در تراکم 300 بوته در مترمربع بود که این امر با برتری ژنوتیپ V2 از نظر عملکرد کل ماده خشک تولیدی با میانگین 78/39 گرم در مترمربع نسبت به سایر ژنوتیپ‌های مورد بررسی همراه بود. در مقابل ژنوتیپ V1، کمترین میزان عملکرد کل ماده خشک با میانگین 95/22 گرم در مترمربع را داشت. همچنین در بین ژنوتیپ‌های مورد بررسی، ژنوتیپ V2 در تراکم 300 بوته در مترمربع با میانگین 162 روز از کاشت و 1899 درجه روز رشد دارای کمترین دوره رشد و ژنوتیپ V4 در تراکم 500 بوته در مترمربع با میانگین 175 روز از کاشت و 2178 درجه روز رشد دارای بیشترین دوره رشد در بین ژنوتیپ‌های مورد بررسی بودند. در بین مراحل فن  ولوژیک نیز، بیشترین درجه روز رشد دریافتی در مرحله نمو برگ و کم‌ترین آن در مراحل خوشه و گل شکفتگی اتفاق افتاد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Plant Density on Some Physiological and Phenological Indices of Oat (Avena sativa L.) Genotypes in Climatic Conditions of Ahvaz

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Dolatabadi 1
  • Payman Hassibi 2
  • Habibolah Roshanfekr Dezfuli 2
  • Behzad Sorkhi 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz,Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Research Institute (SPII), Shahid Fahmideh BLVD, Karaj, iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
This study aimed at determining growth indices and temperature requirements at different stages of plant growth in order to optimize the ecology of plants to increase yield due to the availability of appropriate access to many agro technological issues, including appropriate planting dates, timely irrigation, appropriate time of harvesting, proper time to control the pests and diseases, the selection the appropriate cultivars, and achieving the highest yield of crops. The study also aimed at determining the growth indices and the growth rate of oat based on the BBCH scale.
 
Materials and Methods
This experiment was conducted in the experimental field of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz during 2013-2014 growing season. Five oat genotypes (V1, V2, V3, V4, and V5) were grown under three different planting densities (including 300, 400, and 500 plants.m-2) using factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Growing Degree Days (GDD) of the different growing stages, according to the BBCH scale, and the daily temperature were calculated. Several physiological traits such as CGR, relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), SPAD value and total dry matter yield were evaluated.
 
Results
The treatments had different effects on growth indices and physiological traits such as plant growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilasion rate (NAR), leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll meter number, and dry matter yield. The results of the mean comparison showed that V2 had the highest level of NAR, RGR, CGR and TDW among oat genotypes, with an average of 1.40 g.m-2.day-1, 0.0015 g. g-1.da, 6.34 g.m-2.day and 39.87 g.m-2.day respectively, at a density of 300 plants / m2. In contrast, V1 had the lowest total dry matter yield with an average of 22.95 g.m-2 day. Among the genotypes, V2 had the lowest growth period with a density of 300 plants.m-2 with an average of 162 days of planting and 1899 days of growth (GDD in degrees C) and V4 had the highest growth period among the studied genotypes at a density of 500 plants.m-2 with the average of 175 days of sowing and 2178 days of growth.
Discussion
Reducing CGR at high densities can result in reduced photosynthetic energy in the growth of organs, or increased respiration or poor nutritional transmission of the growth of leaves from the root (Moradpour et al. 2013). Because of the decreasing RGR trend and the increasing density, dry matter accumulation was mainly attributed to undifferentiated tissues, as well as the shading of leaves on each other. Moreover, the increase in the age of the leaves can be considered effective in this decrease. Reductions in NAR during the increase in density can be attributed to the rapid addition of assimilates to seeds and the aging of the leaves. Considering the results of this research, it is suggested that using a GDD scale can lead to better at the growing season by estimating the time table as well as the time of phenological stages of oat in order to manage agricultural production, and therefore to determine the necessary conditions for plant growth.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crop growth rate
  • Forage
  • Growing degree days
  • Net assimilation rate
  • Relative growth rate
  • SPAD value
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