اثر تعداد جوانه در بوته و شاخه برخصوصیات کمی وکیفی انگور رقم پرلت

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

10.22055/ppd.2019.22517.1485

چکیده

چکیده
به منظورتعیینتعداد جوانه در بوته و تعداد جوانه در شاخه بر خصوصیات کمی و کیفی رقم پرلت آزمایشی با سهتیمار 42، 60 و72 جوانه در بوته و تعداد جوانه در شاخه  شامل4، 5 و 6 جوانهدر قالبفاکتوریل بر پایهبلوک‌های کاملتصادفیدرسهتکرار در سال زراعی 92-91 درباغات انگور مجتمع کشت و صنعت گره‌بان هرسینموردبررسیقرارگرفت. نتایج مقایسه میانگین داده‌ها نشان داد کهاثرتعداد جوانه در بوته و تعداد جوانه در شاخه برعملکرد بوته، ضریب باروری، تعداد خوشه در بوته و وزن خوشه معنی‌دار بود. اثر متقابل تعداد جوانه در بوته و تعداد جوانه در شاخه بر صفت  عملکرد در بوته نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد بوته (حدود 12 کیلوگرم در بوته) در تیمار 60 جوانه‌ای و هرس بلند شش جوانه‌ای ثبت شد و کمترین عملکرد (حدود 6/6 کیلوگرم در بوته) در تیمار 42 جوانه‌ای و هرس کوتاه 4 جوانه در شاخه مشاهده شد. بیشترین وزن خوشه حدود 250 گرم در تیمار 60 جوانه‌ای و هرس کوتاه 4 جوانه در شاخه و کمترین وزن خوشه (182 گرم) در تیمار 72 جوانه‌ای و هرس کوتاه 4 جوانه در شاخه به دست آمد. اثر متقابل تعداد جوانه در بوته و شدت هرس بر ضریب باروری دارای اختلاف معنی‌دار در سطح احتمال 1 درصد بود.به‌طور‌کلی حفظ تعداد60 جوانه در بوته و روش هرس مختلطبانگهدارییکشاخهششجوانه‌ایبه‌عنوان شاخهباردهویکشاخهدوجوانه‌ایبه‌عنوان شاخه جانشین برایتربیترو سیمیدر این رقمتوصیهمی‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of number of buds per vine and cane on the yield and productivity coefficient of perlette grape cultivar

نویسندگان [English]

  • Isa Arji 1
  • Rahman Fayz 2
  • Mohammad Gerdakaneh 3
1 Associate Professor of Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Gratuated M.Sc Student Horticultural Sciences, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Grape is one of the fruit trees that need to well management to produce economical production. Farmers often do not properly prune vine grape. Grape cultivars show different response to pruning severity. Perlette cultivar cultivation is increased recently. The main objective of this research was to determine the severity and number of buds per shoot on yield and productivity coefficient of perlette grape cultivar.
Materials and methods
A factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted with three charges levels 42, 60 and 72 and three buds number per shoot include (6-2 buds), (5-2) and (4- 2) during 2012 in Garaban agro industrial complex. Some different traits on flower and fruit quantity and quality were measured.
Results
Results of mean comparison showed that Charge, number of buds per shoot and their interaction effects were significant on number of cluster, cluster weight, yield and productivity coefficient. The interaction effect between charge and the number of buds on the yield per plant showed that the highest yield (about 12 kg) was obtained by charge 60 and long pruning with 6 buds and the lowest yield (about 5.6 kg) was in charge 42 with 4 buds on the branches. The highest cluster weight of about 250 grams was obtained in charge 60 with 4 buds on the branches and the lowest cluster weight (182 g) found in charged 72 and 4 buds on the branches. The interaction effect of charge and the number of buds per shoot was significant on productivity coefficient at 1%. The highest productivity coefficient (0.9833) was found in the charge 42 and 5 buds per shoots and the lowest was in charge 60 with 4 buds per shoots. Generally 60 charge was recommended for this cultivar as mixed pruning with two replacing buds and a shoot with 6 bearing buds.
Discussion
Increasing the number of clusters possibly depend on increasing the charge level, which is one of the yield increasing factors. Berries weight loss and berries abscission lead to cluster weight reduction and yield was affected. Thus, the high charge of 72 buds per plant caused yield loss due to small clusters. This phenomenon is possibly due to lack of adequate nutrition by the vine for cluster growth. Yield reduction in 42 charges was due to a reduction in the cluster production number. Yield was increased with a decrease in pruning intensity, which represents an increase in the number of buds on the fruiting branches. The long pruning with 6 buds per cane and 60 charges was superior to the others. This pruning severity was determined based on fruit yield and quality. Proper pruning lead to balance on vegetative and reproductive growth and quantitative and qualitative yield will be increase.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Grape"
  • " Perlette Cultivar"
  • "Productivity Coefficient"
  • " Mixed Pruning"
References
Ahmad, W., Junaid, M., Nafees, M., Farooq, M. and Saleem, B. A. (2004). Effects of pruning severity on growth behavior of spur and bunch morphology of grapes (vitis vinifera L.) cv. Perlette. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 6(1), 160-161.
Ahmadi, A. (2002). Charging changes (number of buds) in the quantity and quality of the product and the growth of branches in white grape varieties Askari. M.Sc. Thesis of Horticultural Sciences, Tabriz University, Tabriz. [In Farsi]
AOAC. (2000). Official methods of analysis (17th ed). Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA: The Association of Official Analytical
Balasubrahmanyan, V. R. and Khanduja, S. D. (1987). Effect of varying can length on the fruiting potential of soltana vine. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 34(2), 225-228.
Bozhinovitsz, Z. and Petrovski, D. J. (1987). Influence of cane length on fertility, yield and  must quality of the cv .‛Ribier’ (Alphonse lavallee) in the viticultural region of skopje. Vitis, 26(2), 37-41.
Chadha, K. L. and Kumar, H. (1970). Effect of pruning with constant number of total buds, number and lengths of canes varied on growth, yield, fruit quality and bearing behavior of ‘Perlette’ grapes. Indian Journal of Horticulture,27(1), 123-127.
Chadha, K. L., Singh, S. and Kumar, H. (1973). Effect of pruning severity of black prince grape. Progress of Horticulture, 5(3), 5-11.
Christensn, L. P., Leavitt, G. M., Hirschfelt, D. J. and Bianchi, M. L. (1994). The effect of pruning level and post-bud break cane adjustment on Thompson seedless raisin production and quality. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 45(1), 141-149. 
Cirami., R. M., Mccarthy, M. G. and Furkaliev, D. G. (1985). Minimum pruning of Shiraz vines-effects on yield and wine colour. Vitis, 25(3), 36-39.
Colapietral, M. (1988). Influence of pruning severity on grapevine quality and yield, trained traditionally and according to a newly introduced system in to the region Molise. Vitis, 27(3), 72-78.
Feza Ahmad, M. (2008). Influence of pruning severity on yield and quality of himrod grape under kashmir conditions. Indian Journal of Horticulture, 65(1), 16-19.
Jalili Marandi, R. (1996). Effect of pruning on growth and productivity of seedless white grape varieties. The First Iranian Horticultural Science Congress, 14-17 September, Karaj, Iran. [In Farsi]
Jayasena, V. and Cameron, I. (2008). Brix/acid ratio as a predictor of consumer acceptability of Crimson seedless grapes. Food Science and Technology, 31(5), 736-750.
Karami, F., Karami, M. J., Ahmadi, H. and Rostami, A. (2007). The effects of pruning severity and  Cane Length on yield and quality of Rasa and Khoshnavdaym grapes cultivars. 5th Iranian Horticultural Science Congress, 3-6 September, Shiraz, Iran. [In Farsi]
Karami, M. J. (2010). The effect of pruning intensity and number of buds per cane point on the yield and daym grape Shiraz cultivar. Seed and Plant Production Journal, 26(1), 57-67. [In Farsi]
Kohale, V. S., Kulkarni, S. S., Ranpise, S. A. and Garad, B. V. (2013). Effect of pruning on fruiting of Sharad Seedless grapes. Bioinfolet,10(1), 300-302.
Kumar, A. R., Parthiban, S., Subbiah, A. and Sangeetha, V. (2017). Effect of severity of pruning on yield and quality characters of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.): A Review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6(4), 818-835.
Kumar, H. and Tomer, N. S. (1978). Pruning studies on Himrod cultivar of grape. Haryana Journal of Hortcultural Science, 7(1-2), 18-20.
Martinez de Toda, F. and Sancha, J. C. (1998). Long-term effects of zero pruning on Grenache vines under drought conditions. Vitis, 37(4), 155-157.
Moeinrad, H. (2007). Bud fertility and their location on Cane in Soltani, askari and Shahroudi grapes cultivars. 5th Iranian Horticultural Science Congress, 3-6 September, Shiraz, Iran. [In Farsi]
Morris, J. R., Cawthon, D. L. and Sims, C. A. (1985). Yield and quality of Niagara grapes as affected by pruning severity, nodes per bearing unit, training system, and shoot positionin. American Journal Society of Horticultural Science, 110 (2), 186-191.
Mullins, M. G., Bouguet, A. and Williams, L. E. (1992). Biology of the grapevine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nazari, Z., Hemmati, Kh., Rabiei, V., Alhzadeh, M. and Khazayipol Y.Gh. (2016). Summer-pruning and preharvest calcium chloride sprays affect storability in kiwifruit cv. Hayward. Plant Productions, 39(3), 77-91. [In Farsi]
Nejatyan, M. A. (2004). The effect of the number of buds and cane length on fertility and some fruit properties of White seedless grape cultivar. Seed and Plant Production Journal, 2(19), 457-467. [In Farsi]
Norton, M. V. K. and Grant, R. S. (1994). Effect of pruning level on yield, fruit quality, and must characteristics in five Wine grape varieties. Vitis, 45(3), 354-358.
Palanichamy, V., Jindal, P. C. and Singh, R. (2004). Studies on severity of pruning in grapes (Vitis Vinifera L.) cv. Pusa Navrang -Ateinturier Hybrid. Agricultural Science Digest, 24(2), 145-147.
Pandeliev, S. (1987). The effect of spur length on bud fruitfulness, yield and quality of the grapes in cv. Rkatsitelij. Vitis, 26(3), 76-82.
Pavlov, A. and Tsvetkov, V. (1988). Studies of the pruning and the technological qualities of the grape cultivars Storgosia and Dounavski Lazour. Vitis, 26(3), 76-82.
Pirayesh Baig Baghi, A., Fatahi, H. and Karbalaei Khayavi, H. (2007). The effect of pruning intensity (number of buds) and Cane Length on the quality and performance of seedless grape varieties Meshkinshar. 5th Iranian Horticultural Science Congress, 3-6 September, Shiraz, Iran. [In Farsi]
Salem, A. T., Kilani, A. S. and Shaker, G. S. (1997).Growth and quality of two cultivars of grapes as affected by pruning severity. Acta Horticulturea, 44, 309-316.
Sehrawat, S. K., Daulta, B. S., Dahiya, D. S. and Bharadwaj, R. (1998). Effect of pruning on growth, yield and fruit quality in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Thompson Seedless. International Journal of Tropical Agricultural, 16(1-4), 185-188.
Singhrot, R. S., Singh, J. P. and Gupta, O. P. (1977). Effect of pruning levels on productiveness of Thompson Seedless cultivar of grape (Vitis vinifera L.). Haryana Journal of Hortcultural Science, 6(1-2), 37-40.
 
 © 2019 by the authors. Licensee SCU, Ahvaz, Iran. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0 license) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)