بررسی اثر نوع دانه گرده برخی از ژنوتیپ‌های گردو بر ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی و درصد تشکیل میوه در والدین مادری MSG15، MKG23 و MKG24

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد مهندسی تولیدات گیاهی، گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ملایر، ملایر، ایران

10.22055/ppd.2019.22840.1498

چکیده

چکیده
برای تشکیل میوه، باردهی اقتصادی و انجام تلاقی‌های هدفمند در گردو باید گرده‌دهنده‌هایی در باغ‌های بذری و پیوندی مورد استفاده قرار گیرند که با ارقام اصلی همپوشانی گل‌دهی داشته و با توجه به محدودیت طول
عمر تخمک در گردو، در کمترین زمان لقاح صورت گرفته و میوه تشکیل شود. در این تحقیق والدهای مادری
MSG15، MKG23 و MKG24با والدین پدریMKG4، MKG5، MKG10، MKG13، MKG14، MSG15، MKG23وMKG24به‌صورت کنترل‌شده گرده‌افشانی شدند. این تحقیق در سال‌های 1396- 1395 در باغ تحقیقاتی دانشگاه ملایر واقع
در استان همدان اجرا شد.برخی از خصوصیات خشک میوه و مغز نیز در نتاج حاصل از تلاقی کنترل‌شده ارزیابی
شد.
نتایج نشان داد که والد مادری MSG15با والدین پدری MKG4(33/79 درصد)، MKG5(67/81 درصد) و MSG15 (67/79%)، والد مادری MKG23با والدین پدریMKG5(67/83 درصد) و MKG10(67/62 درصد)،والد مادریMKG24با والدین پدریMKG5 (67/81 درصد) و MKG14 (33/81 درصد) بیشترین درصد تشکیل میوه راداشتند. در‌حالی‌که والد مادری MSG15 با والدین پدری MKG13 (33/38 درصد)، MKG23 (33/37 درصد) و MKG24(33/38 درصد)، والد مادریMKG23با والد پدری MKG24 (00/40 درصد) ووالد مادریMKG24با والدین پدری MKG10 (33/42 درصد) وMKG23 (33/42 درصد) ریزش بسیار شدید میوه را نشان دادند. بیشترین وزن میوه با پوست سبز و وزن تر مغز به‌ترتیب با 590 و 110 گرم در نتاج حاصل از تلاقی والد مادریMSG15با والد پدریMKG5مشاهدهشد. همچنین بیشترین درصد مغز با 9/61درصددر نتاج حاصل از والد مادری MSG15 با والد پدریMKG23حاصل شد. از طرفی کمترین وزن میوه با پوست سبز و وزن تر مغز به‌ترتیب با 250 و 5/50 گرم در نتاج حاصل از تلاقی والد مادری MKG23با والد پدری MK24مشاهده گردید. کمترین درصد مغز با 98/28درصددر نتاج به‌دست آمده از تلاقی والد مادریMSG15با والد پدریMKG24مشاهده شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Pollen Type of Some Walnut Genotypes on Fruit Set, and Fruit Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of MSG15, MKG23 and MKG24 as Seed Parents

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mousa Rasouli 1
  • Bahman Ershadi 2
  • Rouhollah Karimi 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences and Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
2 M.Sc. Student of Plant Production Engineering, Department of Horticultural Sciences and Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences and Landscape Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Malayer University, Malayer, Malayer, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
To achieve optimal fruit set, economic productivity and targeted crossings in seedlings and grafted walnut orchards, the flowering time of both male and female flowers and their overlapping is important. Since the walnut ovule longevity is limited, fertilization should occur at the shortest possible periods to lead to fruit set. Therefore, the evaluation of effective pollination periods and the needed time for the growth of pollen tube and ovule fertilization are important for successful fertilization. The aim of this study was to investigate the compatibility and the effect of pollen on some selected genotypes of walnut as pollinizers on the fruit set, fruit composition and the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the progeny derived from MSG15, MKG23 and MKG24 genotypes as maternal parents.
 
Materials and Methods
This research was conducted in 2016-2017 in the research garden of Malayer University in Hamedan province. In this study, female parents including MSG15, MKG23 andMKG24 were pollinated with pollinizers of MKG4, MKG5, MKG10, MKG13, MKG14, MSG15, MKG23 and MKG24. Some of the characteristics of the fruit and the kernel were also evaluated in the offspring resulting from controlled pollination.
 
Results
Based on the results, the cross between female parent genotype of MSG15 with pollinizers of MKG4 (%79.33), MKG5 (%81.67) and MSG15 (%79.67), female parent genotype of MKG23 with pollinizers genotypes of MKG5 (%83.67) and MKG10 (%62.67), female parent of MKG24 with pollinizer genotypes of MKG5 (%81.67) and MKG14 (%81.33) showed the highest fruit set. Also, female parent of MKG15 with pollinizers of MKG13 (%38.33), MKG23 (%37.33) and MKG24 (%38.33), female parent of MKG23 with pollinizer MKG24 (%40.00), female parent of MKG24 with pollinizers MKG10 (%42.33) and MKG23 (%42.33)showed the maximum flower abscission. Moreover, the highest percentage of kernel (%61.9) was found in combination cross of female parent of MSG15 with MKG5 pollinizers. The lowest fruit weight with husk (250 gr) and kernel fresh weight (50.5 gr) was found in combination cross of female parent MKG23 with pollinizer of MKG24. In addition, the lowest percentage of kernel (%28.98) was totally obtained in combination cross of female parent MSG15 with pollinizer of MKG24.
 
Discussion
The highest percentage of fruit was obtained in hybridization of maternal parent MSG15 with pollinizers MK4, MKG5, MSG15, and MKG23 as seed parents with pollinizers MKG5, MKG10, and MKG23 mother's parents with paternal parents MKG5 and MKG10. According to the results of this research, it is possible to use compatible and suitable genotypes introduced in this study in other walnut breeding programs.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Percent kernel
  • Pistillate flower abscission
  • Pollination
  • Pollinizer
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