اثر پرایمینگ‌بذر بر برخی ویژگی‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیک بخش هوایی و ریشه گندم نان (Triticum aestivum L.) در شرایط کاشت لوله‌های گلدانی داخل مزرعه

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
پرایمینگ‌بذر تکنیکی نسبتاً جدید، ساده و کم‌هزینه برای بهبود صفات مرتبط با جوانه‌زنی و استقرار گیاهچه در شرایط تنش و عدم تنش می‌باشد. هدف اصلی از انجام این تحقیق، بررسی اثر تیمارهای مختلف پرایمینگ‌بذر روی برخی ویژگی‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیک سه رقم گندم نان در شرایط کاشت لوله‌های گلدانی داخل مزرعه بود. در این تحقیق، سه رقم گندم نان (ریژاو، سرداری و کریم) و 11 تیمار پرایمینگ‌بذر، شامل پرایمینگ هورمونی: جیبرلیک اسید با غلظت 100میلی‌گرم بر لیتر و 24- اپی‌براسینولید با غلظت 1 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر، اسموپرایمینگ: کلرید پتاسیم با غلظت 100 میلی مول در لیتر و پلی‌اتیلن گلیکول 4000 با پتانسیل‌های 3/2- و 9/2- بار، پرایمینگ‌غذایی شامل سولفات روی آبدار با غلظت‌های 1/0 و 3/0 درصد وزنی-حجمی، اوره با غلظت‌های 2 و 4 گرم در لیتر، آسکوربیک اسید با غلظت 100 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر، تیمار هیدروپرایمینگ با آب‌مقطر یک‌بار تقطیر‌شده و تیمار شاهد بدون پرایم در قالب آزمایش فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 96-1395 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی ماهیدشت کرمانشاه مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. اثر رقم و تیمارهای مختلف پرایمینگ‌بذر بر همه صفات اندازه‌گیریشده، در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی‌دار بود. رقم کریم بیشترین محتوای نسبی آب برگ (58/79 درصد)، سطح برگ پرچم (19/15 سانتی‌مترمربع)، حجم ریشه (9/30 سانتی‌مترمکعب)، وزن خشک ریشه (6/4 گرم در لوله)، وزن خشک شاخساره (7/26 گرم در لوله)، نسبت وزن خشک ریشه به شاخساره (17/0) را نسبت به ارقام دیگر داشت. رقم سرداری با ارتفاع بوته 4/98 سانتی‌متر و طول ریشه 118 سانتی‌متر نسبت به دیگر ارقام برتری نشان داد. رقم ریژاو بیشترین شاخص سبزینگی (3/46) را داشت. بیشترین محتوای نسبی آب برگ، ارتفاع بوته، سطح برگ پرچم و شاخص‌کلروفیل به‌ترتیب مربوط به تیمارهای غذایی اوره با غلظت چهار گرم در لیتر (51/81 درصد، 9/89 سانتی‌متر، 84/16 سانتی‌مترمربع و 47) و سولفات روی با غلظت 3/0 درصد (75/80 درصد، 8/88 سانتی‌متر، 13/16 سانتی‌مترمربع و 46) بود. در این تحقیق، تیمارهای پرایمینگ‌بذر با اوره در غلظت چهار گرم در لیتر و سولفات روی با غلظت 3/0 درصد، به‌عنوان تیمارهای برتر پرایمینگ‌بذر گندم برای شرایط دیم شناسایی گردیدند و به کارگیری این تیمارها احتمالاً می‌تواند در بهبود عملکرد دانه گندم در شرایط دیم مفید باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Seed Priming on Grain Yield and Some Shoot and Root orphophysiological Characteristics of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Potted Planting Conditions in Farm

نویسندگان [English]

  • kianoush safari 1
  • Yousef Sohrabi 2
  • Adel Siosemardeh 2
  • Shahryar Sasani 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Crop Physiology, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Seed priming is a relatively new, inexpensive, and straightforward technique to improve germination percentage, germination rate, early seedling establishment, and other plant's morphophysiological characteristics under normal and stress conditions. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different seed priming treatments on some morphophysiological characteristics of three bread wheat cultivars in potted planting conditions on the farm.
 
Materials and Methods
In this study, three bread wheat cultivars (including "Rijaw," "Sardari," and "Karim") and 11 seed priming treatments (including hormonal priming, osmo-priming, nutritional priming, and hydro-priming with distilled water) and one untreated control treatment were investigated using an experiment conducted as factorial based on Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replicates at Mahidasht Agricultural Research Station, Kermanshah (AREEO) during 2016-2017 cropping seasons.
Results
Cultivar and different seed priming treatments were significant on all the studied traits at a 1% probability level. "Karim" cultivar had the highest leaf relative water content (79.58%), flag leaf area (15.19 cm2), root volume (30.9 cm3), root dry weight (4.6 g/tube), shoot dry weight (26.7 g/tube) and root/shoot ratio (0.17) compared to the other cultivars. "Sardari" cultivar was superior to other cultivars regarding the plant height (98.4 cm) and root length (118 cm). "Rijaw" cultivar with plant height, root length, and flag leaf area equal to 84.4 cm, 113.7 cm, and 13.53 cm2 was identified as a suitable cultivar for dryland conditions which can be recommended along with "Sardari" as drought stress-tolerant cultivars. "Rijaw" cultivar had the highest chlorophyll index (46.3). The highest leaf relative water content, plant height, flag leaf area, and chlorophyll index belonged to nutritional treatments of urea with 4g/L (81.51%, 89.9 cm, 16.84 cm2, and 47) and zinc sulfate with 0.3% concentration (80.75%, 88.8 cm, 16.13 cm2 and 46), respectively.
 
Discussion
The cultivar "Karim" had the highest values of the all shoot and root measured traits. In the current study, seed priming treatments of urea with 4 g/L concentration and zinc sulfate with 0.3% concentration were identified as suitable and superior seed priming treatments in wheat for dryland conditions. It is suggested that appropriate and ideal treatments obtained from the experiment and other bread and durum wheat varieties should be tested for further studies in different countries with similar climates.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll index
  • Leaf relative water content
  • Root traits
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