تأثیر محلول‌پاشی پتاسیم و بور بر برخی ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی استویا (Stevia rebaudiana)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، اهواز، ایران

2 استاد،گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی ومنابع طبیعی خوزستان، اهواز، ایران

3 دانشیار،گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی ومنابع طبیعی خوزستان، اهواز، ایران

4 دانشیار ، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی ومنابع طبیعی خوزستان، اهواز، ایران

5 گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
به منظور بررسی تأثیر محلول‌پاشی پتاسیم و بور بر برخی ویژگی‌های کمی و کیفی استویا‌، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان در سال زراعی 96-۱۳۹5 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش، چهار مقدار محلول‌پاشی بور (صفر، 25، 50 و 75 پی‌پی‌ام) از منبع اسیدبوریک و سه مقدارمحلول‌پاشی پتاسیم (صفر، 10000 و  15000 پی‌پی‌ام) از منبع سولفات پتاسیم بودند. محلول‌پاشی‌ها به فاصله 50، 65 و 80 روز پس از کشت نشاها صورت گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که اثرات متقابل محلول‌پاشی پتاسیم و بور از نظر صفات عملکرد ماده خشک، عملکرد برگ، ارتفاع بوته، شاخص سطح برگ، درصد استویوزید برگ، درصد نیتروژن برگ، میزان پتاسیم و بور برگ اختلاف معنی‌داری ایجاد کرد به‌طوری‌که ترکیب تیماری 15000 پی‌پی‌ام پتاسیم و 50 پی‌پی‌ام بور بیشترین عملکرد ماده خشک (8/1495 کیلوگرم در هکتار) را ایجاد کرد که با ترکیب تیماری 15000 پی‌پی‌ام پتاسیم و 75 پی‌پی‌ام بور (2/1490 کیلوگرم در هکتار) تفاوت معنی‌داری نداشت. هم‌چنین ترکیب تیماری 15000 پی‌پی‌ام پتاسیم و 75 پی‌پی‌ام بور بیشترین عملکرد برگ (68/1134 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و درصد استویوزید برگ (34/10 درصد) را ایجاد کرد. هم‌چنین کمترین عملکرد ماده خشک (73/1407 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد برگ (6/725 کیلوگرم در هکتار) درترکیب تیماری عدم محلول‌پاشی پتاسیم و 25 پی‌پی‌ام بور به‌دست آمد. با توجه به تأثیر مثبت محلول‌پاشی عناصر پتاسیم و بور در افزایش عملکرد ماده خشک، عملکرد برگ و درصد استویوزید گیاه استویا تلفیقی از محلول‌پاشی عناصر پرمصرف و کم‌مصرف مانند پتاسیم و بور در افزایش عملکرد گیاه استویا در شرایط آب و هوایی اهواز مناسب به نظر می‌رسد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Potassium and Boron Foliar application on some of the Qualitative and Quantitative Characteristics of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Razieh Tofangsazpour 1
  • Abdolmahdi Bakhshandeh 2
  • Alireza Abdalimashhadi 3
  • Mohammadreza Moraditelavat 4
  • amin lotfi jalal- abadi 5
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Department of Plant Production Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural and Natural Resources Sciences University of Khoozestan, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Plant Production Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural and Natural Resources Sciences University of Khoozestan, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural and Natural Resources Sciences University of Khoozestan, Ahvaz, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural and Natural Resources Sciences University of Khoozestan, Ahvaz, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, Agricultural and Natural Resources Sciences University of Khoozestan, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Introduction
In recent years, in order to increase public awareness about maintaining a healthy body, a lot of research has been done on the use of sweeteners to find ingrained types of them. Accordingly, new sources have been proposed for the preparation of these food additives one of the most appropriate plant of which is Stevia. In the leaves of Stevia, different varieties of steviol glicosides are produced which are much sweeter than normal sugar. The success percentage of the uptake of food elements through leaf feeding is about 95%, and in the way of attraction through the root is about 10%. In fact, foliar spraying is a shortcut for plant nutrition. Although potassium is one of the essential macro elements in the enzymatic activities of the plant, there is little recognition about its impact on the plant. Also, boron is an essential micro element for vascular plants and is involved in the transport of carbohydrate, cellular differentiation, cell wall synthesis and membrane health. The aim of this study was to consider the effect of potassium and boron foliar spraying on qualitative and quantitative yield of Stevia.
 
Materials and Methods
This research was conducted as a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with four replications in experimental field of Khoozestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Sciences University, during 2016-2017 cropping season. Experimental factors were included: boron foliar spraying from boric acid source at four levels (0, 25, 50 & 75 ppm) and potassium foliar spraying from potassium sulfate source at three levels (0, 10000, 15000 ppm). 
 
Results and Discussion
The results revealed that the interaction of potassium and boron foliar spraying resulted in significant difference dry matter yield, leaf yield, plant height, leaf area index, percent of leaf stevioside, percent of leaf nitrogen, leaf potassium contentnt and leaf boron content. The treatments combination of 15000 ppm potassium and 50 ppm boron produced the highest dry matter yield (1495/8 kg/h), but created no significant difference with treatments combination of 15000 ppm potassium and 75 ppm boron (1490/2 kg/h). Also, treatments combination of 15000 ppm potassium and 75 ppm boron had the highest leaf yield (1134/68 kg/h) and percent of leaf stevioside (10/34 %). The treatments combination of no potassium foliar spraying and 25 ppm boron had the lowest dry matter yield (1407/73 kg/h) and leaf yield (725/6 kg/h). The results of this study indicate that potassium and boron foliar spraying had positive effects on dry matter yield, leaf yield and percent of stevioside. Potassi increased enzyme activity through its role in photosynthesis improving synthesis of protein and carbohydrates, translocation of photosynthetic and boron through its role in improving root deployment, carbohydrates translocation. In addition, cell wall synthesis and structure, had significant effect on dry matter yield and leaf yield of stevia.
 
Conclusion
Due to its more effective and faster effect of foliar sprying than nutrition (through the root, Salim et al., 2009), the compilation of macro element (potassium) and micro element (boron) foliar sprying did better to achieve the high qualitative and quantitative yield of stevia.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dry matter yield
  • Leaf area index
  • Leaf nutrition
  • Leaf yield
  • Stevioside
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