تنوع ژنتیکی و گروه‌بندی ژنوتیپ‌های جو پاییزه از نظر ویژگی‌های ریشه و نشانگرهای ISSR

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته دکتری اصلاح نباتات (ژنتیک بیومتری)، گروه به‌نژادی و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

2 استاد، گروه به‌نژادی و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

3 استاد، گروه اکوفیزیولوژی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

4 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد اصلاح نباتات، گروه به‌نژادی و بیوتکنولوژی گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران

5 کارشناس بخش تحقیقات غلات مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، کرج، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
هدف این پژوهش بررسی تنوع ژنتیکی میان 28 ژنوتیپ جو پاییزه با استفاده از صفات ریشه و 14 آغازگر ISSR طی دو آزمایش بود. آزمایش گلخانه‌ای در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با دو تکرار در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه تبریز در سال 1388 صورت گرفت و صفات وزن خشک ریشه، حجم ریشه، وزن خشک بخش هوایی و نسبت وزن خشک ریشه به بخش هوایی اندازه‌گیری شدند. آزمایش مولکولی با 28 ژنوتیپ جو و 14 آغازگر ISSR انجام شد. تنوع معنی‌داری بین ژنوتیپ‌های جو از نظر مشخصات ریشه مشاهده شد. ژنوتیپ‌های 3، 5، 9 و 20 دارای مقادیر بیشتری از نظر مشخصات ریشه بودند. تجزیه خوشه‌ای به روش Ward و فاصله اقلیدسی، ژنوتیپ‌ها را در چهار گروه قرار داد که ژنوتیپ‌های گروه سوم از نظر کلیه صفات دارای میانگین بالاتری بودند. از 14 آغازگر ISSR مورد استفاده، 11 آغازگر الگوی نواری مناسب و قابل امتیازدهی تولید کردند. در مجموع، 559 نشانگر چند شکل با طول 80 تا 3000 جفت باز در ژنوتیپ‌های جو تولید شد. میزان اطلاعات چند شکلی نشانگرها بین 116/0 تا 252/0 و شاخص نشانگر بین 528/3 تا 972/27 به‌دست‌آمد. گروه‌بندی ژنوتیپ‌های جو بر اساس داده‌های مولکولی ژنوتیپ‌ها را به چهار گروه منتسب کرد. بین نتایج گروه‌بندی بر اساس داده‌های مولکولی و صفات مورد مطالعه تا حدودی تطابق وجود داشت. بر مبنای بررسی ارتباط نشانگرهای ISSR با صفات کمی، ISSRهای 1 و 5 دارای رابطه معنی‌داری با اکثر صفات بودند. به نظر می‌رسد که می‌توان از نشانگرهای ISSR مورد مطالعه در امر گزینش به کمک نشانگر در برنامه‌های به‌نژادی جو استفاده کرد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Genetic Diversity and Grouping of Winter Barley Genotypes for Root Characteristics and ISSR Markers

نویسندگان [English]

  • Soheila Shayan 1
  • Mohammad Moghaddam Vahed 2
  • Seyed Abolghasem Mohammadi 2
  • Kazem Ghassemi Golezani 3
  • Fahimeh Sadeghpour 4
  • Ahmad Youssefi 5
1 Ph.D. Graduate of Plant Breeding (Biometrical Genetic), Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology‚ Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
2 Professor‚ Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
3 Professor‚ Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
4 M.Sc. Graduate of Plant Breeding, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology‚ Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran
5 Expert, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Determination of genetic diversity level is fundamental for identification of desirable parents to be used in different breeding programs, and molecular markers have been succssfully taken for the analysis of genetic diversity in various crops. The objective of this study was to inversitgate genetic diversity among 28 genotypes of barley using root and shoot characters and 14 ISSR primers through two separate experiments (greenhouse and molecular experiments).
 
Materials and Methods
The greenhouse experiment was carried out as randomized complete block design with two replications in the research greenhouse of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran. The traits measured in the greenhouse were root dry weight, root volume, shoot dry weight and ratio of root to shoot dry weight. The molecular experiment was conducted to study the diversity of barley genotypes using 14 ISSR primers. The polymorphic information content and marker index were calculated for each ISSR primer.
 
Results
Analysis of variance showed significant differences among the genotypes under study for all traits. According to the mean comparisons, genotypes 3, 5, 9 and 20 had higher mean in terms of all characters. The cluster analysis, based on Ward­­'s algorithm and Euclidean distance, grouped genotypes in four clusters. Group 3 had the highest mean in terms of all of the studied characters. Out of 14 ISSR primers used, 11 primers generated scorable and appropriate banding pattern. A total of 559 polymorphic bands with 80-3000 bp were produced. Polymorphic information content was estimated to be between 0.116 and 0.252 with the average of 0.187. The marker index ranged from 3.528 to 27.972 with the mean of 9.704. Classification of the studied barley genotypes was conducted by molecular data using neighbor joining algorithm based on distance coefficient of number of differences, which assigned the genotypes into four groups. There was a concordance between the grouping of genotypes based on molecular data and the characters in the greenhouse, but this concordance was not complete. Association analysis of ISSR markers with measured characteristics of barley genotypes showed that ISSR1 and ISSR5 had significant relationship with most of the root and shoot traits.
 
Discussion
Highgenetic diversity was observed among barley genotypes with respect to root and shoot traits. The results showed that ISSR primers have the ability to separate barley genotypes from each other. Also, it seems that ISSR markers under study can be used in marker assisted selection of barley genotypes in breeding programs.
 
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Association analysis
  • Cluster analysis
  • ISSR primers
  • Molecular data
  • Stepwise regression
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