الگوی پروتئوم برگ درخت توت آمریکایی (Maclura pomifera) در پاسخ به تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اراک، اراک، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

4 محقق گروه پروتئومیکس مؤسسه CNR فلورانس، ایتالیا

چکیده

چکیده
شوری و قلیائیت خاک‌ها اثرات مخربی بر 932 میلیون هکتار از زمین‌های جهان دارد. هم‌چنین سبب کاهش تولید محصول در 100 میلیون هکتار از زمین‌های قاره آسیا شده است. این تحقیق به ‌منظور ارزیابی اثرات متقابل منابع نیتروژن و سطوح بی‌کربنات سدیم بر خصوصیات رشدی، فیزیولوژیکی و پارامترهای فلورسانس کلروفیل دو ژنوتیپ سفید و بنفش سیر در گلخانه هیدروپونیک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی‌عصر (عج) رفسنجان در سال 1395 انجام شد. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه فاکتور بی‌کربنات سدیم در سه سطح (صفر، 10 و 20 میلی‌مولار)، نیتروژن در سه سطح (سولفات آمونیوم، نیترات آمونیوم و نیترات کلسیم با غلظت پنج میلی‌مولار نیتروژن) و دو ژنوتیپ سیر (سفید و بنفش) با 3 تکرار انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد منابع نیترات آمونیوم و سولفات آمونیوم اثر منفی بی‌کربنات را بر وزن تر و خشک اندام هوایی و وزن تر و خشک ریشه کاهش داد. گیاهان تغذیه‌شده با سولفات آمونیوم بیش‌ترین مقدار قند محلول در هر دو ژنوتیپ سیر (4/1 و 32/1 میلی‌گرم برگرم وزن تر برگ به‌ترتیب در ژنوتیپ سفید و بنفش) را به خود اختصاص دادند. میزان پرولین با افزایش غلظت بی‌کربنات سدیم در هر دو ژنوتیپ سیر افزایش یافت. بیشترین مقدار رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی تحت تأثیر بی‌کربنات در گیاهانی مشاهده شد که با نیترات آمونیوم و سولفات آمونیوم تغذیه شده بودند. منابع نیتروژن، بی‌کربنات سدیم و برهمکنش آن‌ها بر شاخص‌های فلورسانس کلروفیل تأثیری نداشت و تنها اثر ژنوتیپ بر این صفت معنی‌دار شد. در مجموع، کاربرد سولفات آمونیوم و نیترات آمونیوم سبب بهبود خصوصیات رشدی و عملکردی ژنوتیپ‌های سیر در شرایط تنش قلیائیت شد. براساس یافته‌های این مقاله می‌توان به این نکته اشاره کرد که با تغییر در محلول‌های غذایی مورد‌نیاز گیاهان در شرایط تنش می‌توان از میزان خسارت به آن‌ها کاست و از این تغییر سبب بهبود خصوصیات رشدی و عملکردی گیاهان در شرایط تنش شد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Proteome Analysis of Osage Orange Leaf (Maclura pomifera) in Response to Drought Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Alireza Khaleghi 1
  • Rohangiz Naderi 2
  • Seyed Alireza Salami 3
  • Mesbah babalar 2
  • Biancaelena Maserti 4
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak University, Arak, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
4 National Research Council of Italy, Institute of Sustainable Plant Protection (CNR-IPSP), Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Introduction
Drought stress is one of the most important environmental factors, which limit the growth of plants. By the end of the 21st century, the incidence of drought stress is expected to increase because of the global warming phenomenon. As a consequence, trees growth and viability in the forests and urban greenspace will reduce. Thus, selection of plants that are more tolerant to severe drought stress and are able to cope with such environmental conditions needs to be considered in future silvicultural strategies. This study was carried out to identify candidate drought-tolerance proteins in Maclura pomifera. Therefore, we aimed to explore the performance of Maclura pomifera under a severe drought stress and analyse the proteome changes of Maclura pomifera leaf in response to drought.
 
Materials and Methods
The experiment was carried out on 4-year-old Maclura pomifera saplings genotypes cultivated on a flat field in the Botanical Garden of University of Tehran. Saplings were exposed to irrigation regimes of 100% and 25% field capacity in a completely randomized design. Leaf samples were collected and were frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen and then stored at −80C to be used for further analyses. Experiments were performed using the gradient pH 3-10 NL IPG strips for the isoelectric focusing. IEF was carried out using the PROTEAN IEF. Strips were then equilibrated first for 15 min in reducing solution and then 15 min in alkylating solution. Equilibrated IPG strips were then placed and fixed using hot agarose on the top of home-made 12 % SDS- polyacrylamide gels. Separation of proteins in the second dimension was carried out in Protean XL cell. The protein spots were visualized by staining with BioSafe Coomassie gel stains following manufacturer’s instructions.
 
Results and Discussion
After doing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 25 protein spots that had displayed significant protein level changes were identified. Differentially expressed, proteins were divided in three groups. The first group included stress and defense proteins such as lipoxygenase, two types of heat shock protein, Allergen, Convicilin and legumin A2 precursorm; the second group included oxidative stress proteins such as Catalase, Chloroplast stromal ascorbate Peroxidase, Cytosolic ascorbate peroxidase, Iron superoxide dismutase and Manganese superoxide dismutase. The
third group included energy and metabolism proteins such as Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit, Ribulose -1,5- bisphosphate carboxylase /oxygenase small subuni, Translation elongation factor, Aldolase, Hydroxy-acid oxidase, Isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and glyoxalase. The present results indicate that most proteins have been identified and their changes caused an increase in tolerance and adaptation of Maclura pomifera to drought stress. Also, our data suggest that drought tolerance of M. pomifera might be correlated with diminishing oxidative damage by activation of the antioxidant systems.
 
Conclusion
The present results indicate that most proteins have been identified and their changes caused an increase in tolerance and adaptation of Maclura pomifera to drought stress. Also, our data suggest that drought tolerance of M. pomifera might be correlated with diminishing oxidative damage by activation of the antioxidant systems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • Heat shock protein
  • Lipoxygenase
References
Bonhomme, L., Monclus, R., Vincent, D., Carpin, S., Lomenech, A. M., Plomion, C., Brignolas, F., & Morabito, D. (2009). Leaf proteome analysis of eight Populus×euramericana genotypes: genetic variation in drought response and in water-use efficiency involves photosynthesis-related proteins. Proteomics, 9‌(17), 4121-4142.
Bonsager, B. C., Finnie, C., Roepstorff, P., & Svensson, B. (2007). Spatio-temporal changes in germination and radicle elongation of barley seeds tracked by proteome analysis of dissected embryo, aleurone layer, and endosperm tissues. Proteomics, 7‌(24), 4528-4540.
Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72‌(1-2), 248-54.
Dubey, H., & Grover, A. (2001). Current initiatives in proteomics research: The plant perspective. Current Science, 80(2), 262-269.
Echevarria-Zomeno, S., Ariza, D., Jorge, I., Lenz C., Jorrin, J., & Navarro, R. (2009). Changes in the protein profile of Quercus ilex leaves in response to drought stress and recovery. Plant Physiology, 166(3), 233-245.
Gill, S. S., & Tuteja, N. (2010). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 48(12), 909-930.
Hajheidari, M., Abdollahian-Noghabi, M., & Askari, H. (2005). Proteome analysis of sugar beet leaves under drought stress. Proteomics, 5(4), 950-60.
Hazen, S. P., Pathan, M. S., Sanchez, A., Baxter, I., Dunn, M., Estes, B., Chang, H. S., Zhu, T., Kreps, J. A., & Nguyen, H. T. (2005). Expression profiling of rice segregating for drought tolerance QTLs using a rice genome array. Functional and Integrative Genomics, 5(2), 104-116.
IPCC. (2007). Executive summary of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Retrieved from http/www.ipcc.com.ch.
Koyro, H., Ahmad, P., & Geissler, N. (2012). Abiotic stress responses in plants: an overview. In Ahmad, P., & Prasad, M.N.V. (Eds.), Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance of plants in the era of climate change (pp.1-28). NY: Springer.
Li, Y., Ye, W., Wang, M., & Yan, X. (2009). Climate change and drought: a risk assessment of crop-yield impacts. Climate research, 39(1), 31-46.
Saremirad, A., & Mostafavi, K. (2020). Genetic diversity study of Sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) genotypes for agro-morphological traits under normal and drought stress conditions. Plant Productions, 43(2), 227-240. [In Farsi]
Shafiei, N., Khaleghi, E., & Noorollah Moallemi, M. (2019). Effect of salicylic acid on some morphological and biochemical characteristics of Olive (Olea europaea cv. ‘Konservalia’) under water stress. Plant Productions, 42(1), 15-30. [In Farsi]
Sidow, J. N. (1991). Plant lipoxygenase: structure and function. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology, 42(1), 145-188.
Sofo, A., Dichio, B., Xiloyannis, C., & Masia, A. (2004). Effects of different irradiance levels on some antioxidant enzymes and on malondialdehyde content during rewatering in olive tree. Plant Science, 166(2), 293-302.
Ushimaru, T., Nakagawa, T., Fujioka, Y., Daicho, K., Naito, M., Yamauchi, Y., Nonaka, H., Amako, K., Yamawaki, K., & Murata, N. (2006). Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing the rice dehydroascorbate reductase gene are resistant to salt stress. Plant Physiology, 163(11), 1179-1184.
Vasquez-Robinet, C., Mane, S. P., Ulanov, A. V., Watkinson, J. I., Stromberg, V. K., De Koeyer, D., Schafleitner, R., Willmot, D. B., Bonierbale, M., Bohnert, H. J., & Grene R. (2008). Physiological and molecular adaptations to drought in Andean potato genotypes. Experimental Botany, 59 (8), 2109-2123.
Wang, W., Scali, M., Vignani, R., Spadafora, A., Sensi, E., Mazzuca, S., & Cresti, M. (2003a). Protein extraction for two-dimensional electrophoresis from olive leaf, a plant tissue containing high levels of interfering compounds. Electrophoresis, 24(14), 2369-2375.
Wang, W., Vinocur, B., & Altman, A. (2003b). Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta, 218(1), 1–14.
Wang, W., Vinocur, B., Shoseyov, O., & Altman, A. (2004). A: Role of plant heatshock proteins and molecular chaperones in the abiotic stress response. Trends in Plant Science, 9)5), 244-252.
Xia, L., Björnstedt, M., Nordman, T., Eriksson, L. C., & Olsson, J. M. (2001). Reduction of ubiquinone by lipoamide dehydrogenase. An antioxidant regenerating pathway. European Journal of Biochemistry, 268 (5), 1486-90.
Xiao, X., Yang, F., Zhang, S., Korpelainen, H., & Li, C. (2009). Physiological and proteomic responses of two contrasting Populus cathayana populations to drought stress. Physiologia Plantarum, 136(2), 150-168.
Yan, S., Tang, Z., & Su, w. (2005). Proteomic analysis of salt stress- responsive proteins in rice root. Proteomics, 5(2), 235-244.
 
© 2021 Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0 license) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).