مقایسه تحمل به شوری سه رقم انار تجاری (Punica granatum L.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد باغبانی، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اردکان، یزد، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اردکان، یزد، ایران

3 استادیار، مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، یزد، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه اردکان، یزد، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
انار (Punica granatum L.) یک گونه گیاهی میوه‌ای تجاری مهم از خانواده Punicaceae، می‌باشد. شوری آب آبیاری یکی از مشکلات محدودکننده کشت‌‌و‌کار آن است. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، شناسایی و معرفی متحمل‌ترین رقم تجاری انار به شوری آب‌آبیاری بود. طی یک آزمایش گلدانی در یک دوره نه ماهه ارزیابی و مقایسه تحمل به شوری سه رقم انار تجاری در سال‌های 97-1396 در سایت مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری صورت‌گرفت. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با دو فاکتور 1- شوری آب آبیاری در پنج سطح 1، 3، 5، 7 و 9 دسی‌زیمنس‌بر متر و 2- رقم انار در سه سطح ("شیشه‌کپ فردوس"، "ملس‌ساوه" و "ملس‌یزدی") و با چهار تکرار و در مجموع 60 گلدان انجام شد. نتایج نشان داد که رقم و سطح شوری اثر معنی‌داری بر صفات مورفولوژیک، فیزیولوژیک و غلظت عناصر غذایی داشتند. در تمامی ارقام مورد مطالعه با افزایش سطح شوری، شاخص‌های رشدی، محتوی نسبی‌آب‌برگ و میزان کلروفیل کاهش و درصد برگ‌های نکروزه و ریزش ‌یافته افزایش یافت. بیشترین ارتفاع، تعداد انشعابات نهایی، قطر شاخه و کلروفیل کل در شوری 3 دسی‌زیمنس‌برمتر و در رقم "ملس‌یزدی" مشاهده شد. همچنین با افزایش سطح شوری میزان سدیم، کلر و نسبت سدیم به پتاسیم به‌طور معنی‌داری افزایش یافت. در بالاترین سطح شوری (9 دسی‌زیمنس‌برمتر) بیشترین میزان شاخص‌های رشدی، وزن‌تر و خشک برگ، برگ‌سبز، محتوای‌نسبی آب، کلروفیل و پتاسیم و کمترین میزان برگ نکروزه، غلظت سدیم، کلر و نسبت سدیم به پتاسیم در رقم "ملس‌یزدی" حاصل شد. به‌طور کلی در میان ارقام مورد بررسی "ملس‌یزدی" و "ملس‌ساوه" به‌ترتیب متحمل‌ترین و کم تحمل‌ترین رقم به شوری بودند. 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Salinity Tolerant of Three Cultivars of Commercial Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Jamaati 1
  • Maryam Dehestani-Ardakani 2
  • Ali Momenpour 3
  • Mostafa Shirmardi 4
1 M.Sc. Student of Horticultural Science, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Yazd, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Yazd, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, National Salinity Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yazd, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Ardakan University, Yazd, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an economically important commercial fruit plant species belonging to the family of Punicaceae. Saline irrigation water is currently one of the most severe limiting factors in the cultivation area. In recent years, nearly 7% of the global cultivated lands are affected by salinity, and soil salinization aggravating has been a more significant threat to the healthy and sustainable development of agriculture worldwide. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the effects of salt stress on physiological and biochemical characteristics in pomegranate cuttings to better understand the salt resistance of pomegranate and offer a reference for pomegranate cultivation on saline lands.
 
Materials and Methods
A pot experiment was conducted for nine months to evaluate and compare three Iranian cultivar salinity tolerance of commercial pomegranate in 2017-2018. The experiment was arranged in factorial based on a completely randomized design with two factors included water salinity in 5 levels of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 dSm-1 and three commercial pomegranate genotypes (‘Shishehcap Ferdos,’ ‘Malas Saveh’ and ‘Malas Yazdi’) in 4 replications and generally with 60 pots. At the end of the experiment, the vegetative yield and fresh and dry weight of leaves, ion leakage, relative water content, chlorophyll a, b and total were also measured. In addition, leaves were analyzed for Na+, K+, Cl–, and Na/K ratio elements.
 
Results
Results showed that cultivar and salinity levels were affected by morphological and physiological characteristics, and concentration of nutritional elements. In all the three studied cultivars, an increase in the salinity levels led to a significant decrease in the growth characteristics, the relative water content of leaves, and chlorophyll. Moreover, the percentage of leaf necrosis, fall, and ion leakage increased considerably. Also, with increasing salinity levels, Na+, Cl- and Na+/Cl- significantly increased. In the highest level of salinity (9 dS.m-1), the maximum growth characteristics, fresh and dry weight of leaves, green leaves, the relative water content of leaves, chlorophyll, and potassium, and the lowest percentage of leaf necrosis, ion leakage, Na+, Cl- and Na+/Cl- were obtained in a cultivar of ‘Malas Yazdi.’
 
Discussion
Generally, among the investigated cultivars, ‘Malas Yazdi’ and ‘Malas Saveh’ were the highest and the lowest tolerants, respectively. Our study showed that the adverse effects on physiological and morphological indexes aggravated over stress time. We inferred that it was one of the mechanisms for pomegranate alleviating the detrimental effects of salt stress. This study would provide a theoretical basis for the cultivation and utilization of pomegranate plants on saline soil.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorine
  • Growth Characteristics
  • Malas Yazdi
  • Sodium
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