اثر مواد ضد تعرق و محافظت‌کننده‌های گیاهی روی عملکرد، صفات رویشی و فیزیولوژیکی زوفا (Hyssopus officinalis L.) تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان، دامغان، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان، دامغان، ایران

3 دانشیار بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان یزد، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، یزد، ایران

4 استادیار، مرکز ملی تحقیقات شوری، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، یزد، ایران

5 استادیار، گروه کشاورزی، واحد دامغان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد دامغان، دامغان، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
به منظور بررسی اثر مواد ضدتعرق و محافظت‌کننده‌های گیاهی روی عملکرد و برخی ویژگی‌های رشدی گیاه دارویی زوفا (Hyssopus officinalis L.) تحت تنش خشکی، آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در سال زراعی 96-1395 در مزرعه‌ی تحقیقاتی مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان یزد انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل آبیاری در سه سطح شاهد (25 درصد تخلیه آب قابل دسترس گیاه از خاک)، متوسط (50 درصد تخلیه آب قابل دسترس گیاه از خاک) و شدید (75 درصد تخلیه آب قابل دسترس گیاه از خاک) در کرت‌های اصلی قرار داشت و محلول‌پاشی در چهار سطح آب‌مقطر (شاهد) و کائولین (5/2 درصد)، کیتوزان (4/0 گرم در لیتر)، اسید آمینه گلایسین (5/2 در هزار) و زمان محلول‌پاشی (رویشی و گلدهی، گلدهی) در کرت‌های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد در سطح آبیاری شاهد محلول‌پاشی با آب بیشترین میزان وزن خشک برگ (3/81 گرم در مترمربع)، عملکرد وزن خشک اندام هوایی (5/140 گرم در مترمربع)، عملکرد اسانس (40/9 گرم در مترمربع)، عملکرد اقتصادی (3/81 گرم در مترمربع) را دارا بود و کاربرد کائولین در زمان رویشی + گلدهی سبب بیشترین میزان وزن خشک گل (53 گرم در مترمربع) شد. در سطح آبیاری تنش متوسط، محلول‌پاشی با آب در زمان رویشی + گلدهی بیشترین میزان قند محلول (0396/0 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر) و میزان پرولین (585/8 میکرومول بر گرم وزن تر) در زمان گلدهی و رویشی + گلدهی را باعث گردید. همچنین محلول‌پاشی کائولین در زمان رویشی + گلدهی بیشترین میزان عملکرد اقتصادی (73 گرم در مترمربع) و محلول‌پاشی کیتوزان در زمان رویشی + گلدهی بیشترین میزان عملکرد وزن خشک اندام هوایی (111 گرم در مترمربع) و عملکرد اسانس (55/7 گرم در مترمربع) را سبب شد.در سطح تنش شدید نیزگلایسین در زمان گلدهی تولید بیشترین میزان شاخص برداشت (79 درصد) را داشت.در مجموع، نتایج این تحقیق بیانگر تاثیر مثبت کائولین، کیتوزان و گلایسین در کاهش اثرات تنش خشکی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Anti-Transpiration and Plant Protective Materials on Vegetative and Physiological Traits of (Hyssopus officinalis L.) under Drought Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sarah Khajeh Hosseini 1
  • Farzad Fanoodi 2
  • S.A Tabatabaee 3
  • Rostam Yazdani Biouki 4
  • Jafar Masoud Sinaki 5
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agriculture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran (farzadfanoodi@yahoo.com
3 Associate Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Research Department, Yazd Agricultural and Natural Resource and Education Center, AREEO, Yazd, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, National Salinity Research Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Yazd, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Damghan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Damghan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) is a perennial and belongs to the Lamiaceae family. Drought is the most critical environmental stress that adversely affects crop plant performance. The use of anti-transpiration and plant protective materials is one way that has recently been raised to improve plant resistance under stress conditions. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the effect of anti-transpiration and plant protective materials on vegetative and physiological traits of Hyssop under drought stress and foliar application time.
 
Materials and Methods
This research was conducted as a split-plot factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with three replications in 2016-2017. The experimental treatments included irrigation in three levels: 25% water available from the soil (control), 50% water available from the soil (mild stress), and 75% water available from the soil (severe stress) Were the main plots. Foliar application in four levels: water (control), kaolin (2.5%), chitosan (0.4 g/ l) and glycine amino acid (2.5 per thousand), and foliar application time: (vegetative and flowering, flowering) were the subplots. In the present study, dry leaf weight, flower dry weight, essential oil yield, shoot dry weight, economic yield, harvest index, proline, and soluble sugar were measured.
 
Results
The results showed that at control stress level, the foliar application of water had the highest leaf dry weight (81.3 g/m2), shoot dry weight yield (140.5 g/m2), essential oil yield (9.40 g/m2), economic yield (81.3 g/ m²), and proline content (8.558 (µM/g FW). Moreover, during flowering and vegetative + flowering, kaolin's foliar application during vegetative+flowering had the highest dry flower weight (53 g/m2). At mild stress level, the foliar application of water during vegetative+flowering included the highest amount of soluble sugar (0.396 mg/g FW), and glycine foliar application at the flowering time had the highest harvest index (79%). Also, kaolin spraying during vegetative+flowering had the highest economic yield (73 g/m), and chitosan foliar application during vegetative+flowering had the highest shoot dry weight (111 g/m²) and essential oil yield (7.55 g/m2).
 Discussion
Due to the beneficial effects of antiperspirants and plant protection, they can be used as suitable solutions to increase plant production and reduce drought stress in arid and semi-arid regions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Folier application
  • Harvest index
  • Soluble Sugar
  • Proline
  • Kaolin
  • glycine
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