ارزیابی عکس‌العمل بیوشیمایی گیاهچه‌های آفتابگردان به سطوح سلنیوم در شرایط شور

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

3 دانش‌آموخته فیزیولوژی گیاهی، گروه زیست‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه پیام نور، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
در این پژوهش تأثیر سلنیوم (صفر، 5 و 10 میکرومولار) بر روی آفتابگردان در شرایط شور (50 و 100 میلیمولار) و در محیط هیدروپونیک به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب یک طرح تصادفی در دانشگاه پیام نور مرکز تبریز در سال 1394 مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که شوری، در هر دو سطح، باعث افزایش معنی‌دار مقدار مالون‌دی‌آلدئید و فنل آزاد و کاهش فلاونوئید شد. همچنین، شوری  mM50 افزایش مقدار آنتوسیانین، پروتئین کل، قند محلول و فعالیت آسکوربات پراکسیداز و شوری mM100 کاهش وزن خشک و ارتفاع اندام هوایی و افزایش مقدار پرولین، تانن و لیگنین را به‌طور معنی‌دارموجب شد. کاربرد سلنیوم 5 میکرومولار در محیط‌های فاقد نمک موجب کاهش مقدار فلاونوئیدها و لیگنین، ولی افزایش فعالیت پراکسیداز، مقدار فنل آزاد و ارتفاع اندام هوایی شد. درحالی‌که کاربرد سلنیوم 10 میکرومولار در محیط‌های فاقد نمک افزایش غلظت لیگنین و مالون‌دی‌آلدئید و فعالیت آسکوربات پراکسیداز را باعث شد. در محیط‌های حاوی نمک mM 50، کاربرد سلنیوم در هر دو غلظت، باعث کاهش معنی‌دار مقدار قند محلول و فعالیت آسکوربات پراکسیداز و در 10 میکرومولار باعث افزایش تانن و کاهش لیگنین شد. در محیط‌های حاوی نمک mM 100، کاربرد سلنیوم در هر دو غلظت باعث کاهش معنی‌دار پرولین، تانن و لیگنین و افزایش فعالیت آسکوربات پراکسیداز شد. طبق نتایج حاصل، سلنیوم اگرچه باعث تغییرات قابل‌توجهی در مقدار ترکیبات فنلی و قند محلول و افزایش آنزیم آسکوربات پراکسیداز شد ولی نتوانست باعث کاهش مقدار مالون‌دی‌آلدئید شود و ازکاهش وزن خشک در شرایط شور ممانعت کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Biochemical Reaction of Sunflower Seedlings to Selenium Levels in Saline Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoumeh Abedini 1
  • Gader Habibi 2
  • Samad Arezoomand 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Iran
3 M.Sc. Graduate of Plant Physiology, Department of Biology, Payame Noor University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Salinity is one of the detrimental environmental factors that limit the productivity of crop plants worldwide. Most of the crop plants are sensitive to salinity. Selenium (Se) has not been classified as a plant essential element, but its role as a beneficial element and its ability in amelioration of different environmental stresses has been reported in different plant species. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Se on sunflower plants under salt stress conditions.
 
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted as factorial in a completely randomized design by three replications in a hydroponic system with a temperature regime of 25/18°C, photoperiod of 14 h, and relative humidity of 70% in a growth chamber. Seeds were germinated in petri-dishes and then uniform 3-day old seedlings were transferred to 50% Hoagland solution. One week after pretreatment, plants were transferred to 100% Hoagland solution and treated with selenium) sodium selenate; 0, 5, and 10 µM) and salinity (sodium chloride; 50 and 100 mM) for two weeks. Plant's shoots were harvested 15 days after treatments, and frozen in liquid nitrogen until assays.
 
Results
The results indicated that salinity at both levels significantly increased the MDA as well as free phenol and decreased the flavonoids contents of plants. The anthocyanin, soluble sugars, and total protein contents and the activity of APX increased significantly in response to 50 mM of NaCl, while the proline, tannins, and lignin contents increased, but dry weight and height of shoot decreased significantly in response to 100 mM of NaCl. In non-saline condition, Se application at 5 µM decreased the flavonoids and lignin contents and increased the free phenols, shoot height, and POD activity significantly. Application of Se at 10 µM in non-saline conditions significantly increased the lignin and MDA contents and APX activity. In saline condition with 50 mM of NaCl, Se application at both two levels decreased the soluble sugars and APX activity, and at 10 µM decreased the lignin and increased the tannin contents significantly. In saline condition with 100 mM of NaCl, Se application at both two concentrations considerably decreased the proline, lignin, and tannin contents but increased the APX activity. Furthermore, a reduction in soluble sugars by application of 5 µM of Se was seen in plants that were in saline conditions with 100 mM of NaCl.
 
Discussion
According to the results of this study, salinity induced oxidative stress in sunflower, especially at 100 mM that was obvious by elevated level of MDA. Even though the Se application in saline condition could induce the notable changes in the phenolic compounds and promoted the activity of APX, it could not inhibit the MDA formation and dry weight falling in plants. Selenium application in non-saline conditions also could not result to the considerable benefits in sunflower plants.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • antioxidant system
  • Growth
  • phenolics
  • Proline
  • Salinity
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