مطالعه ژنتیک تحمل به ریزش خورجین و صفات مرتبط در ژنوتیپ‌های کلزای زمستانه با استفاده از روش تلاقی دای‌آلل

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ژنتیک بیومتری، گروه بیوتکنولوژی و اصلاح نباتات ، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع‌ طبیعی ساری، ساری، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه بیوتکنولوژی و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم زراعی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی ساری،ساری، ایران

3 دانشیار پژوهش مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات،آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

4 استاد گروه بیوتکنولوژی و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و ‌منابع ‌طبیعی ساری، ایران

5 استادیار پژوهش مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات،آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
بهمنظور تجزیه ژنتیکی تحمل به ریزش خورجین در ژنوتیپ‌های کلزای زمستانه، یازده ژنوتیپ ایرانی و خارجی کلزا به‌صورت "دای آلل یک‌طرفه" با یکدیگر تلاقی داده شدند. والدین به همراه نتاج F1 (جمعاً 66 تیمار) در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 97-1396 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج کشت و شاخص تحمل به ریزش خورجین و برخی از صفات مرتبط اندازه‌گیری شدند. تجزیه واریانس ژنوتیپ‌ها تنوع ژنتیکی بالایی را از لحاظ صفات مورد بررسی نشان داد. به همین ترتیب واریانس ترکیب‌پذیری عمومی و خصوصی برای اکثر صفات ازجمله عملکرد دانه و همچنین شاخص تحمل به ریزش خورجین معنی‌دار به‌دست‌آمد که مبین سهم اثرات افزایشی و غالبیت ژنی در کنترل ژنتیکی این صفات بود. بنابراین به نظر می‌رسد انتخاب دوره‌ای همراه با آزمون نتاج، روش اصلاحی مناسبی برای بهره‌گیری از هر دو جزء افزایشی و غیرافزایشی باشد. میزان وراثت‌پذیری عمومی صفات بررسی‌شده در دامنه 87/93-81/78 درصد برآورد شد که بیانگر سهم بالای واریانس ژنتیکی در کنترل این صفات بود. بررسی همبستگی صفات نشان داد که همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری بین صفت شاخص تحمل به ریزش خورجین با صفات عملکرد دانه (449/0=r) و میزان روغن (313/0=r) وجود دارد. در مجموع والدین Zarfam و ES Artist با عملکرد مطلوب و شاخص تحمل به ریزش بالا به‌عنوان بهترین ترکیب‌شونده‌های عمومی و دورگ‌های Okapi × Zarfam،Nafis × ES Artist ، Ahmadi × Nafis، Ahmadi × ES Neptune،Zarfam× ES Neptune ،Nafis × ES Natalie، وNima × ES Natalie به‌عنوان بهترین ترکیب‌شونده‌های خصوصی برای برداشت مکانیزه کلزا و بهبود صفت تحمل به ریزش خورجین توصیه می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Study of Silique Shattering Tolerance Genetic and Related Traits in Winter Oilseed Rape Genotypes Using Diallel Cross Method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Eidi Kohnaki 1
  • ghaffar kiani 2
  • Bahram Alizadeh 3
  • Ghorban Ali Nemat Zadeh 4
  • Hassan Amiri Oghan 5
1 Ph.D. Student of Plant Breeding, Department of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agriculture Science and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
2 Departments of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
4 Professor, Departments of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Although the opening of the silique is a valuable mechanism for the distribution of seeds in nature, it is also a significant problem in oilseed rape cultivation. Seed shedding from siliques at and after maturity is commonly referred to as pod shatter, and it reduces the grain yield of oilseed rape (Brassica napus). This factor, also called dehiscence, can cause losses of up to 50% of potential grain yield if harvesting is delayed and in adverse weather conditions. As a general consideration, canola is susceptible to shattering, and there is little genetic diversity associated with silique shattering tolerance in its commercial lines hence, increasing shatter tolerance is an important breeding objective.
 
Materials and Methods
In the present study, eleven parents were used to generate 55 hybrids. The experiment was carried out as a complete randomized block design with three replications at the seed and plant improvement institute. Silique Shattering Tolerance Index (SSTI) using Random Impact Test (RIT) and other related traits were measured during 2018. Griffing's model I of method II was used for the analysis of variance and the estimation of genetic parameters. Correlation coefficients for the studied traits and other calculations were performed using the SPSS software and Excel program.
 
Results
Analysis of variance of genotypes showed high genetic diversity for the studied traits. Similarly, the general and specific combining ability variances were significant for most traits such as grain yield and the silique shattering tolerance index. This indicates the contribution of additive and non-additive effects in the genetic control of these traits. The general heritability of the studied traits was observed in the range of 78.81% to 93.87%. Correlation coefficients of traits showed a positive and significant correlation between silique shattering tolerance index with grain yield and oil content. Moreover, Zarfam and ES Artist with a good performance and silique shattering tolerance index are considered the best general combiners. Okapi×Zarfam, Nafis×ES Artist, Ahmadi×Nafis, Ahmadi×ES Neptune, Zarfam×ES Neptune, Nafis×ES Natalie, and Nima×ES Natalie are recommended as the best specific combinations for mechanized oilseed rape harvest and improvement of the shattering tolerance trait.
 
Discussion
Low specific heritability of grain yield can be due to the more outstanding contribution of non-additive effects than additive effects. Various research studied variable estimation for general and specific combining ability and other parameters due to the difference in genetic materials and different weather conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Combining ability
  • Diallel
  • Gene effects
  • genotype
  • oilseed rape
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