تأثیر روش ‏های مختلف آبیاری بر عملکرد غده و بهره‏ وری مصرف آب در ارقام سیب‏ زمینی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد رشته مهندسی زراعت، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر روش‏های مختلف آبیاری بر عملکرد چهار رقم سیب‏زمینی آزمایشی به‏صورت اسپلیت پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی با 3 تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی بردسیر، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان در دو سال زراعی 96-1394 اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی آزمایش شامل روش آبیاری در 3 سطح (نشتی (جوی و پشته)، بارانی و قطره‏ای) و فاکتور فرعی شامل رقم سیب‏زمینی در 4 سطح (رقم رایج بردسیر (مارفونا)، سانته، آگریا و بانبا) بود. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب نشان داد تأثیر روش آبیاری بر کلیه صفات مورد بررسی به جز درصد ماده خشک غده و کارایی مصرف آب معنی‏دار (01/0P≤) بود. بالاترین میانگین وزن غده (55/71 گرم)، تعداد غده قابلفروش در بوته (99/6)، عملکرد غده (98/36 تن در هکتار) و وزن خشک اندام‏های هوایی (97/5 تن در هکتار) در روش آبیاری نشتی وکمترین آن‏ها در شرایط آبیاری بارانی مشاهده گردید. در شرایط آبیاری قطره‏ای و بارانی، درشت‌ترین غده در رقم سانته و در شرایط آبیاری کرتی برای رقم مارفونا به‌دست‌آمد. بیشترین تعداد غده در بوته در رقم سانته (50/9) و پس از آن رقم مارفونا (89/8) حاصل شد که اختلاف آماری آن با ارقام بانبا (15/7) و آگریا (88/6) معنی‏دار بود. درصد ماده خشک در رقم آگریا (89/22) به‏طور معنی‏داری بیشتر از سایر ارقام (41/21-93/19) بود. میزان عملکرد غده در ارقام سانته، مارفونا‌، بانبا و آگریا به‌ترتیب 84/34، 91/28، 14/26، 57/21 تن در هکتار بود. بالاترین میزان بهره‏وری مصرف آب (93/5 کیلوگرم بر هر مترمکعب آب) در شرایط آبیاری بارانی و رقم سانته مشاهده شد. به‏طورکلی، نتایج نشان داد در منطقه بردسیر، رقم مارفونا فقط برای شرایط آبیاری کرتی (مصرف بالای آب) مناسب و در روش‏های قطره‏ای و بارانی رقم سانته مناسب ترین رقم می‏باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Various Irrigation Methods on Tuber Yield and Water Productivity of Potato Varieties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Bagher Mastalizadeh 1
  • Gholamreza khajoei-Nejad 2
  • Rooholla Moradi 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Productions, Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Potato is extremely sensitive to water stress, both from inadequate or excess water, resulting in reductions of tuber yield and quality. The plant has a relatively shallow root system, locating about 85% typically in the upper 30 cm of soil, which increases the sensitivity of the crop to water stress. Variation in soil moisture conditions can also lead to the occurrence of tuber physiological disorders such as brown center, hollow heart, growth cracks, bruise susceptibility, and heat necrosis, typically during the bulking period. A direct relation between low moisture conditions of soil and misshapen tubers has been reported. The aim of study was to assess the growth, yield, yield components, and water productivity of some conventional potato varieties in Bardsir region of Kerman.
 
Materials and Methods
In order to evaluate the effect of various irrigation methods on growth, yield and yield components of potato varieties, an experiment was conducted as the split-plot based on the randomized complete block design with three replications at experiment station of the Agricultural Faculty of Bardsir, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman during 2015 and 2016. The experimental treatments were irrigation methods: 1- Furrow (flooding), 2-sprinkler and 3- drip assigned to main plot and potato varieties: 1- Marfona, 2- Sante, 3- Agria and 4- Banba as the subplot.
 
Results
The results showed that the effect of irrigation method was significant (P≤0.01) on all the studied traits except in water productivity and percentage of tuber dry mater. The highest mean of tuber weight (71.55 g), number of marketable tuber (6.99), tuber yield (36.98 t ha-1), and shoot dry weight (5.97 t ha-1) were recorded in the furrow irrigation method. The lowest values of the traits were observed using the sprinkler method. The effect of variety treatment on all traits was significant (P≤0.01). For drip and sprinkler irrigation methods, the largest tuber was related to Sante variety, and regarding the surface method, it was gained at Marfona. The highest number of tuber per plant belonged to Sante variety (9.50) followed by Marfona (8.89) which had a significant difference with Banba (7.15) and Agria (6.88) varieties. Tuber percentage of dry weight for Agria variety (27.22) was significantly higher than other varieties (19.93-22.74). The tuber yield for Sante, Marfona, Banba, and Agria was 34.84, 28.91, 26.14, and 21.57 t ha-1, respectively. The maximum level of water productivity (5.93) was gained for santé variety using the sprinkler irrigation method.
 
Discussion
In general, the results indicated that Marfona variety was justly appropriate for flooding irrigation conditions, and santé variety is best for low water supply (drip and sprinkler irrigation methods).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drip Irrigation
  • Dry Matter
  • Furrow irrigation
  • Sprinkler irrigation
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