شناسایی صفات مؤثر بر عملکرد علوفه در گونه علوفه‌ای- مرتعی علف‌بره پابلند (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد اصلاح نباتات، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهشکده بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی شمال‌غرب و غرب کشور، پژوهشگاه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تبریز، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
معرفی ارقام علوفه‌ای- مرتعی با عملکرد مناسب در شرایط مختلف آب و هوایی، جهت کشت در مراتع و یا ایجاد چراگاه‌های دست‌کاشت از ملزومات احیاء مراتع کشور می‌باشد. یکی از مهّم‌ترین اهداف برنامه‌های به‌نژادی در گراس‌های سردسیری افزایش عملکرد علوفه است. این پژوهش با هدف شناسایی صفات مهّم تأثیرگذار در افزایش عملکرد علوفه علف‌بره پابلند در سال 1395 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی پژوهشکده بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی- تبریز در استان آذربایجان شرقی انجام گرفت. لذا 32 ژنوتیپ علف‌بره پابلند (Festuca arundinacea) در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. ضرایب همبستگی بین صفات نشان داد صفات عملکرد علوفه خشک سالیانه و عملکرد بذر با تمام صفات به غیر از روز تا خوشه‌دهی و روز تا گرده‌افشانی همبستگی مثبت و معنی‌داری داشتند. در تجزیه رگرسیون گام‌به‌گام با در نظر گرفتن عملکرد علوفه خشک سالیانه به‌عنوان متغیر وابسته، قطر تاج‌پوش و طوقه وارد مدل گردیدند که در مجموع 1/64 درصد از تغییرات مدل رگرسیون مربوطه را توجیه‌ کردند. در تجزیه رگرسیون گام‌به‌گام برای عملکرد بذر به‌عنوان متغیر وابسته، عملکرد علوفه خشک سالیانه، تعداد ساقه و قطر تاج‌پوش وارد مدل گردیدند. با توجه به نتایج، در بین صفات مورد بررسی صفات قطر تاج‌پوش (453/0) و قطر طوقه (394/0) اثر مستقیم بالایی بر عملکرد علوفه خشک سالیانه داشتند و برای عملکرد بذر نیز صفات عملکرد علوفه خشک سالیانه (797/0) و تعداد ساقه (423/0) اثر مستقیم بالایی داشتند. بنابراین صفات قطر تاج‌پوش و تعداد ساقه به دلیل سهولت اندازه گیری به‌عنوانشاخصدرگزینش ژنوتیپ‌های برتر علف‌بره پابلند در برنامه های به‌نژادی قابلاستفاده خواهند بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of Effective Traits on Forage Yield in Tall Fescue (Festuca Arundinacea Schreb.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ehsan Rahimi 1
  • Reza Mohammadi 2
  • Alireza Pourmohammad 3
  • Ali Asghar Aliloo 4
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Plant Breeding, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Branch for Northwest & West region, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Production and Genetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Introduction of high yielding forage cultivars for different climates is necessary to use in pasture establishment and rangeland renovation. Thus, increasing forage yield is one of the most important goals in cool-season grass breeding programs. Tall fescue (Festuca Arundinacea Schreb.) is a perennial cool-season grass adapted to a wide range of growing conditions. Tall fescue is one of the most drought, heat, and wear tolerant species among perennial cool-season grasses. Due to its large and deep root system, it is able to take up water in dry periods when other grasses have stopped their growth. Then it could be a good choice for pasture establishment and rangeland renovation in Iran. This study was carried out to identify important traits which are effective to increase forage yield in the tall fescue in East Azarbaijan region of Iran.
 
Materials and Methods
For this purpose, 32 tall fescue genotypes were evaluated in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 4 replications in research farm of Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Northwest and West region of Iran- Tabriz in 2016. Each replication contained 5 spaced single plants 60 cm apart. Eleven agro-morphological characteristics were measured.
 
Results
The correlation coefficients showed that total dry forage yield and seed yield had significant and positive correlation with all traits except days to heading and days to pollination. Total dry forage yield had significant and positive correlation with plant height, canopy diameter, stem number, and crown diameter (0.650**, 0.763**, 0.500**, and 0.750**, respectively). Stepwise regression analysis, considering the total dry forage yield as the dependent variable, showed that canopy diameter and crown diameter were entered into the model. These traits in total justified 64.1 percent of the regression model changed. Moreover, stepwise regression analysis, considering the seed yield as the dependent variable, showed that total dry forage yield, stem number, and canopy diameter were entered into the model. According to the results, canopy diameter (0.453) and crown diameter (0.394) had highest direct effects on the total dry forage yield and for the seed yield, total dry forage yield (0.797) and stem number (0.423) had highest direct effects.
 
Discussion
Based on the results of this study, canopy diameter and crown diameter had greater relative importance in determining the total dry forage yield of tall fescue. Thus, plant canopy and crown diameter cold be used as an indicator in selection of best tall fescue genotypes in breeding programs.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • East Azarbaijan
  • Stepwise regression
  • Seed yield
  • Rangeland
  • Pasture
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