اثر مقادیر مختلف بذر بر عملکرد و برخی خصوصیات زراعی توده مهاجران یونجه در سیستم‌های کشت بدون شخم و شخم متداول در منطقه سمیرم

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی – باغی‌، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

2 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
به‌منظور بررسی و مقایسه عملکرد یونجه در شرایط کشت بدون شخم و مقایسه آن با روش کشت معمول با کاربرد مقادیر مختلف بذر، آزمایشی طی سال‌های 1393 تا 1395 در شهرستان سمیرم استان اصفهان، با استفاده از طرح کرت‌های خرد‌شده نواری در قالب بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. در این آزمایش عامل روش کاشت در دو سطح بدون شخم و شخم متداول به‌عنوان فاکتور اصلی (افقی)، میزان بذر یونجه توده مهاجران در چهار سطح 10، 20، 30 و 40 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی (عمودی) و چین‌برداری به‌عنوان عامل زمانلحاظ شد. پارامترهای اندازه‌گیری در تیمار‌های مختلف شامل تراکم بوته یونجه پس از استقرار در سال اول، تراکم علف‌های هرز، وزن تر و خشک علف‌های هرز، میانگین دو ساله عملکرد محصول تر و خشک علوفه و تراکم ساقه در چین‌های مختلف بودند. بر‌اساس نتایج به‌دست‌آمده، در میزان علوفه تر و خشک تولیدی و تعداد ساقه در بین دو روش کشت بدون شخم و کشت متداول، اختلاف معنی‌داری وجود نداشت. تعداد بوته استقرار یافته در واحد سطح در دو روش کشت، اختلاف معنی‌دار داشتند به‌گونه‌ای که تراکم بوته یونجه در سیستم بدون شخم بیشتر بود. مقایسه تعداد و وزن تر و خشک علف‌های هرز نشان داد که وزن تر و خشک علف‌های هرز در روش کشت بدون شخم قبل از چین اول بیشتر از شخم متداول بود. بر پایه نتایج به‌دست‌آمده، استفاده از سیستم کشت بدون شخم با مصرف 30 کیلوگرم بذر در هکتار به‌ترتیب با تولید 60760 و 10770 کیلوگرم در هکتار علوفه تر و خشک بیشترین عملکرد محصول را به خود اختصاص داد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Seed Rates on Yield and Some Agronomic Traits of Alfalfa Mohageran Ecotype in no-till and conventional tillage Methods in Semirom Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Torabi 1
  • Mohsen Heidarisoltanabadi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Crop Science Horticulture, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Agricultural Engineering Research Department, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
In agriculture section, more than half of the consumption energy is used for tillage. No-till systems can provide optimal conditions for some crops production because of less energy usage, optimal watering, and physical regime for plant and optimal microbial activities for humus synthesis. Although the climate change and the drought in recent years have restricted alfalfa cultivated area, it still provides about 40% of animal feed within 35 million hectares. Alfalfa with 20% protein is the first forage in the world.
 
Materials and Methods
In order to compare alfalfa cultivation in no-till and tillage methods with different rate of seeding, an experiment was carried out as RCBD in the form of a strip split plot plan, during 2013-2015 in Semiroum region, Esfahan province, Iran. The main strip plot (horizontal) was cultivation methods including no-till and conventional tillage methods, and strip subplot (vertical) was the four rate of alfalfa seeding including 10, 20, 30, and 40 kg/ha. The cutting time of alfalfa was the time factor in treatments. The planting operation was carried out after harvesting of barley cereals with 30% residual straw in the mid-summer. The measurable parameters in different treatment included the number of established plants in the first spring, fresh and dry forage yield divided different cuts, stem density divided different cuts, and the numbers and weight of weed.
 
Results
Variance analysis showed that there is no significant difference between no-till and conventional tillage methods in terms of fresh and dry forage production. The seeding rate as a sub-factor has significant effect (level 1%) on fresh and dry forage and number of stem per unit area, whereas the interaction effect between cultivation methods with seeding rate has not significant effect on forage production and number of stem per unit area. The plant density, and the number of weeds were affected from cultivation methods (conventional tillage and no-till), whereas the plant density and number of weeds in no-till method was superior to tillage system. The plant density was varied between different of seeding rate, whereas the number of weed has not affected from the seeding rate.
 
Discussion
The obtained results indicated that regarding the alfalfa cultivation in no-till method (with 30% residual straw), not only the forage production was equal to conventional tillage method, but also the number of plant in no-till method was higher than tillage method. It seems that the superiority of no-till method in plant referred to proper seed placement because of minimum plough of soil in no-till method. However, the number of weed in no-till method was higher than conventional tillage method, but this item had no effect on the yield and stability of alfalfa, because the presence of weeds was only related to the first cutting. Using the no-till cultivation method with 30 kg of seeding rate per hectare produced 60.76 ton/ha fresh forage and 10.77 ton/ha dry forage.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alfalfa yield
  • Conservational tillage
  • No till
  • Plant density
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