ارزیابی عملکرد و سودمندی کشت مخلوط لگوم‌های علوفه‌ای با گرامینه‌ها به‌عنوان کشت دوم در شالیزار

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 مربی مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده علوم ومهندسی کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
به‌منظور مقایسه عملکرد علوفه و تعیین بهترین نسبت کاشت در کشت مخلوط تریتیکاله، جو، شبدر لاکی و ماشک علوفه‌ای، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی شامل شانزده تیمار در سه تکرار طی دو سال زراعی 1392-1391 و 1393-1392 در اراضی شالیزاری مؤسسه تحقیقات برنج کشور در رشت اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل کشت خالص تریتیکاله، شبدر لاکی، ماشک علوفه‌ای و جو و کشت مخلوط تریتیکاله و شبدر لاکی به نسبت‌های 70 :30، 50 :50 و30 :70، کشت مخلوط تریتیکاله و ماشک علوفه‌ای به نسبت‌های 70 :30، 50 :50 و30 :70، کشت مخلوط جو و شبدر لاکی به نسبت‌های 70 :30، 50 :50 و30 :70 وکشت مخلوط جو و ماشک علوفه‌ای به نسبت‌های 70 :30، 50 :50 و30 :70 بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بین تیمارهای آزمایشی از نظر اکثر صفات مورد مطالعه تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود داشت. مقایسه میانگین داده‌ها نشان داد که کشت مخلوط 70 درصد تریتیکاله و 30 درصد ماشک علوفه‌ای، با میانگین عملکرد 48844 و 15269 کیلوگرم در هکتار به‌‌ترتیب بیشترین عملکرد علوفه تر و خشک را دارا بود. نسبت برابری زمین در اغلب تیمارهای کشت مخلوط بزرگتر از یک به‌دست‌آمد. تیمارکشت مخلوط 70 درصد تریتیکاله و 30 درصد ماشک علوفه‌ای با نسبت برابری زمین 31/1 و 54/1 به‎ترتیب برای علوفه تر و خشک نسبت به سایر نسبت‌های کشت از برتری قابل ملاحظه‌ای برخوردار بود و به‌عنوان مناسب‌ترین الگوی کشت مخلوط در اراضی شالیزاری استان گیلان قابل توصیه می‌باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Yield and Advantages of Forage Legumes with Cereals Intercropping as Second Crop in Paddy Fields

نویسندگان [English]

  • mohammad rabiee 1
  • fatemeh farahdahr 2
1 Instructor Researcher of Rice Researcher Institute of Iran, Agricultural research Education and Extension Organization, Theran, Iran
2 Ph.D. Student of Crop Ecology, University College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
One of the key strategies in sustainable agriculture is to restore diversification into agricultural ecosystems and its effective management. The results of various studies have shown that the ecological advantage of intercropping is due to the efficient use of environmental resources. The purpose of mixed cultivation experiments, especially forage plants, is to increase the yield of forage in quantitative and qualitative terms, maintain the ecological balance and stabilize the system.
 
Materials and Methods
In order to compare the forage yield and determine the best planting ratio in mixed cropping of Triticale, Barley, Crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.), and Vicia sativa, an experiment was conducted based on the complete randomized block design with sixteen treatments and three replications in paddy fields of Rice Research Institute of Iran (Rasht) during 2012-2014 for two years. Experimental treatments included pure planting of Triticale, Crimson clover, Vicia sativa, and Barley, planting mixtures of Triticale and Crimson clover with ratios of 70:30, 50:50 and 30:70, planting mixtures of Triticale and Vicia sativa with ratios of 70:30, 50:50 and 30:70, planting mixtures of Barley and Crimson clover with ratios of 70:30, 50:50 and 30:70 as well as planting mixtures of Barley and Vicia sativa with ratios of 70:30, 50:50 and 30:70. The studied traits included plant height, number of stems, number of tillers, number of plants per m2, fresh forage yield, dry forage yield as well as land equivalent ratio (LER) values for fresh and dry forages. The obtained data were analyzed by SAS software and mean comparisons were performed using LSD test.
 
Results
The results of analysis of the variance showed significant differences between the experimental treatments in most traits. Mean comparison showed that planting ratio of 30% Vicia sativa + 70% Triticale had maximum fresh and dry forage yields with averages of 48844 and 15269 kg. ha-1, respectively. Most treatments had LER of greater than one. Planting ratio of 70% Triticale and 30% Vicia sativa showed LER values of 1.31 and 1.54 for fresh and dry forage yields. The treatment is recommended for planting in paddy fields of Guilan area due to its relative advantage with respect to other planting ratios.
Discussion
Considering that the main objectives of crop forage production in rice paddy fields are the optimum use of paddy fields, sustainability of rice production, production of forage for livestock, and increasing farmers' incomes, the cultivation of all treatments tested as pure and mixed crops in rotation with rice has no problem with regard to the interference of harvesting of the forages with the time of cultivating the seedling rice.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crimson clover
  • Cropping Pattern
  • Land Equivalent Ratio
  • Triticale
  • Vicia sativa
References
Amossea, C., Jeuffroy, M. H. and David, C. (2013). Relay intercropping of legume cover crops in organic winter wheat: Effects on performance and resource availability. Journal of Field Crops Research, 145, 78-87.
Ansar, M., Ahmed, Z. I., Malik, M. A., Nadeem, M., Majeed, A. and Rischkowsky, B. A. (2010). Forage yield and quality potential of winter cereal-vetch mixtures under rainfed conditions. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture, 22(1), 25-36.
Assefa, G. and Ledin, I. (2001). Effect of variety, soil type and fertilizer on the establishment, growth, quality and voluntary intake by cattle of oats and vetch cultivated in pure stands and mixtures. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 92(1), 95-111.
Banik, P. A. Midya, B. K. Sarkar, S. and Ghose, S. (2006). Wheat and chickpea intercropping systems in an additive series experiment: advantages and weed smothering. European Journal of Agronomy, 24(4), 326-332.
Ceglarek, F., Rudzinski, R. and Buraczynska, D. (2004). The effect of the amount of seeds sown on the crop structure elements and seed yields of common vetch grown as pure and mixed crops with supporting plants. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Sklodowska, Sectio E, Agricultura, 59(3), 1147-1154.
Ghosh, P. K. (2004). Growth, yield, competition and economics of groundnut / cereal fodder intercropping systems in the semi- arid tropics of India. Journal of Field Crops Research, 88(2), 227-237.
Hauggaard-Nielsen, H., Ambus, P. and Jensen. E. S. (2003). The comparison of nitrogen use and leaching in sole cropped versus intercropped pea and barley. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystem, 65(3), 289-300.
Javanmard, A., Dabbagh Mohammadi-Nasab, A., Javanshir, A., Moghaddam, M. and Janmohammadi, H. (2009). Forage yield and quality in intercropping of maize with different legumes as double-cropped. Journal of Food, Agricultural and Environment, 7(1), 163-166. [In Farsi]
Lamieh Hervani, J. and Alizadeh, Kh. (2012). The selection of most suitable combination in mixed cropping of hairy vetch with barley or triticale under Zanjan rainfied conditions. Iranian Journal of Agriculture, 1(1), 17-39. [In Farsi]
Maoa, L., Zhang, L., Zhaoc, X., Liuc, S., Werfd, W. V., Zhangc, S., Spiertzd, H. and Lia, Z. (2014). Crop growth, light utilization and yield of relay intercropped cotton as affected by plant density and a plant growth regulator. Journal of Field Crops Research, 155, 67-76.
Mazaheri, D. (1998). Intercropping. Tehran: Tehran University Press. [In Farsi]
Mikic, A., Cupinax, B., Rubiales, D., Mihailovi, V., Sarunaitek, L., Fustec J., Antanasovicx, S., Krsticx, D., Bedoussac, L., Zoricx, L., DorCevic, V., Peric, V., Srebri, M. (2014). Models, developments, and perspectives of mutual legume intercropping. Journal of Advances in Agronomy, 130(6), 1-83.
Nakhzari Moghaddam, A. (2012). The yield and forage quality of intercropping barley and mustard in different planting dates. Journal of Crop Production, 5(4), 173-189. [In Farsi]
Namdari, M., Behdani, M. A. and Arab, Gh. (2012). Effect of yield, yield components and seed quality of intercropping soybean cultivars in gaem shahr weather conditions. Plant Productions, 34(3), 13-25. [In Farsi]
Nassiri Mahallati, M., Koocheki, A., Mondani, F., Feizi, H. and Amirmoradi, S. (2014). Determination of optimal strip width in strip intercropping of maize (Zea mays L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Northeast Iran. Journal of CleanerProduction, 106, 343-350.
Rabiee, M. and Rajabian, M. (2011). Effect of tillage systems and rice residues management on morphological traits and yield of winter rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) as a second crop after rice in Rasht. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 21(4), 105-121. [In Farsi]
Rabiee, M. (2015). Investigation of quantitative and qualitative effects of annual forage legume - cereal intercropping as second crop in paddy fields. Jihad-e-Agriculture Ministry, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rice Research Institute of Iran, Final Report of Research Experiment, 40 pp. [In Farsi]
Sebahttin, A., Gular, M. and Ozgur Tongel, M. (2004). Effect of seed rates on forage production and hay quality of vetch-tritical mixtures. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 3(6), 752-756
Vrignon-Brenasa, S., Celettea, F., Amossec, C. and David, C. (2016). Effect of spring fertilization on ecosystem services of organic wheat and clover relay intercrops. European Journal of Agronomy, 73, 73-82.
Wang, Z., Zhao, X., Wu, P., He, J., Chen, X., Gao, Y. and Cao, X. (2015). Radiation interception and utilization by wheat/maize strip intercropping systems. Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 204, 58-66.
Yilmaz, S., Atak, M. and Erayman, M. (2008). Identification of advantages of maize -legume intercropping over solitary cropping through competition indices in the east Mediterranean region. Turkish Journal of Agriculture ofForestry, 32(2), 111-119.
 
 © 2020 by the authors. Licensee SCU, Ahvaz, Iran. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0 license) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)