Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. Student of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Crop Sciences, Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Sari, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Ramin Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Mollasani, Iran


Background and Objectives
High degree of evaporation from soil surface (due to high temperature of environment and low relative humidity), poor soil organic content and instability of soil structure are considered indicators of arid regions of Iran. It seems that in a regional management, conservation of plant residues with irrigation operations in the absence of a negative effect on yield can be used as a way to improve the above-mentioned conditions. The management of plant residues has been interesting to researchers in recent decades due to its various effects on the physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. On the other hand, protective tillage can help to maintain more soil moisture, reduce erosion and less use of agricultural machinery, thereby achieving sustainable agriculture and reducing costs. This research was conducted to investigate the effect of application of wheat residues and green manure along with different tillage systems on corn.
Materials and Methods
This experiment was conducted in Shush, Khuzestan Province in 2015-2016, as strip-plot in randomized complete block design with three replications. The main treatment consisted of conventional and minimum tillage methods. The sub-plot treatment applied mulches such as wheat residue, two types of green manure (mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)) and control (no fertilizer application). The characteristics in this research included grain yield, biological yield, number of rows in corn, number of kernels per row, 100 grains weight, and weed growth indices (density, variety and dry weight in two stages: 4 to 6 leaf and maturity of corn).
Maximum grain yield of corn was obtained in wheat residue (10399.27 kg ha-1). Also, there was no significant difference in plants treated with green manure of cowpea (10013.49 kg ha-1). The lowest economic yield was seen in control (7382 kg ha-1). Similar to grain yield, the highest biological yield of corn occurred with application of minimum tillage (16139.14 kg ha-1), wheat residue (17170.89) and cowpea green manure (16790.37 kg ha-1). Besides, the best treatment to reduce the number, variety and dry weight of weeds, was achieved with green manure in minimum tillage. Based on the results, the dominant weed of the field in conventional tillage in 4 to 6 leaf stage was physalis (Physalis alkekengi) while it was common purslane (Portulaca oleracea) in the minimum tillage. In maturation of corn, both in conventional tillage and minimum tillage, the dominant weed was physalis, which had the highest dry weight of weeds in every stage.
Based on the results of this research, application of wheat residues and cowpea green manure combined with minimum tillage can be a suitable way to increase corn yield and reduce weed diversity and biomass in sustainable agriculture.


Main Subjects

Algan, N. and Celen, A. S. (2011). Evaluation of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) as green manure in Aegean conditions in terms of soil nutrition under different sowing dates. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(7), 1744-1749.
Anderson, R. L. (2008). Residue management tactics for corn following spring wheat. Weed Technology, 22(1), 177-181.
Bahrani, M. J., Kheradnam, M., Emam, Y., Ghadiri, H. and Assad, M. T. (2002). Effects of tillage methods
on wheat yield and yield components in continuous wheat cropping. Experimental Agriculture, 38(4), 389-395. [In Farsi]
Bahrani, M. J., Raufat, M. H. and Ghadiri, H. (2007). Influence of wheat residue management on irrigation corn grain production in reduced tillage system. Soil and Tillage Research, 94(2), 305-309.

Baniasadi, R., Tohidi-Nejad, E. and Mohammadi-Nejad, Gh. (2014). Evaluation of different methods of tillage and residue management of barley in maize production. Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 24(4), 61-69. [In Farsi]

Baniasadi, R., Tohidi-Nejad, E. and Mohammadi-Nejad, Gh. (2015). Evaluation of different methods of tillage and residue management of barley in maize production. Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 24(4), 61-69. [In Farsi]
Bayer, C., Martin-Neto, L., Mielniczuk, J., Pillon, C. N. and Sangoi, L. (2001). Changes in soil organic matter under subtropical no-till cropping system. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65(5), 1473-1478.
Bilalis, D., Sidiras, N. and Economou Vakali, C. (2003). Effect of different levels of wheat straw soil surface coverage on weed flora in Vicia faba crops. Journal of Agronomy Crop Science, 189(4), 233-241.
Celik, I., Barut, Z. B., Ortas, I., Gok, M., Demirbas A., Tulun, Y. and Akpinar, C. (2011). Impacts of different tillage practice on some soil microbiological properties and crop yield under semi-arid Mediterranean conditions. International Journal of Plant Production, 5(3), 237-254.
Chukan, R. (2012). Maize and maize properties. Karaj: Publication of Agricultural Education.
Dabighi, Kh., Fateh, E. and Aynehband, A. (2016). Comparison of different green manure biomass the effects of different green manure on soil fertilization and weed density reduction. Plant Productions, 39(2), 1-10. [In Farsi]
Dhima, K. V., Vasilakoglou, I. B., Eleftherohorinos, I. G. and lithourgidis, A. S. (2006). Allelopathic potential of winter cereal cover crop mulches on grass weed suppression and sugarbeet development. Crop Science, 46(4), 345-352.
Duppong, L. M., Delate, K., Liebmen, M., Horton, R., Kraus, G., Petrich, J. and Chowdbury, P. K. (2004). The effect of natural mulches on crop performance, weed suppression and biochemical constituents of catnip and St. Johns Wort. Crop Science, 44(3), 861-869.
Gajri, P. R., Arora, V. K. and Prihar, S. S. (2004). Tillage for sustainable cropping. Uttar Pradesh, India: International Book Distributing Co.
Ghaemmaghami, S. N., Meskarbashee, M. and Moezzi, A. A. (2014). Evaluation of yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) under plant residues treatments, nitrogen and micro elements in Ahvaz. Plant Productions, 37(1), 119-130. [In Farsi]
Ghasemi, A., Ghanbari, A., Fakheri, B. and Fanaie, H. R. (2016). Effect of different fertilizer resources on yield and yield components of grain maize (Zea mays L.) affected by tillage managements. Agroecology, 7(4), 499-512. [In Farsi]
Giacomini, S. J., Machet, J. M., Boizard, H. and Recous, S. (2010). Dynamics and recovery of fertilizer N15 in soil and winter wheat crop under minimum versus conventional tillage. Soil and Tillage Research, 108(1-2), 51-58.
Hamzei, J. and Borbor, A. (2014). Effect of different soil tillage methods and cover crops on yield and yield components of corn and some soil characteristics. Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 24(3), 36-47. [In Farsi]
Hejazi, A., Bahrani, M. J. and Kazemeini, S. A. (2010). Yield and yield components of irrigated rapeseed wheat rotation as influenced by crop residues and nitrogen levels in a reduced tillage method. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science, 8(5), 502-507.
Hobbs, P. R., Sayre, K. and Gupta, R. (2008). The role of conservation agriculture in sustainable agriculture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 363(1491), 543-555.
Judice, W. E., Griffin, J. L., Etheredge, L. M. and Jones, C. A. (2007). Effects of crop residue management and tillage on weed control and sugarcane production. Weed Technology, 21(3), 606-611.
Kruidhof, H. M., Bastiaans, L. and Kropff, M. J. (2008). Ecological weed management by cover cropping: Effects on weed growth in autumn and weed establishment in spring. Weed Research, 48(6), 492-502.
Maldonado, J. A., Osornio, J. J., Barragan, A. T. and Anaya, A. L. (2001). The use of allelopathic legume cover and mulch species for weed control in cropping systems. Agronomy Journal, 93(1), 27-36.
Mirzashahi, K., Paknejad, A. R. and Omidvari, S. (2017). Effect of crop rotation and management of nitrogen and plant residue consumption on yield of maize single cross 704 and some chemical properties of the soil. Soil Science Journal (Soil and Water Science), 3(2), 116-124. [In Farsi]
Mohammadi, Gh. R., Safari-Poor, M., Eghbal Ghobadi, M. and Najaphy, A. (2015). The effect of green manure and nitrogen fertilizer on corn yield and growth indices. Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 25(2), 106-124. [In Farsi]
Mrabet, R. (2002). Stratification of soil aggregation and organic matter under conservation tillage systems in Africa. Soil and Tillage Research, 66(2), 119-128.
Nazari, Sh., Zaefrian, F. and Farahmanfar, E. (2014). Ability of three legume cover crops to control weeds in corn. Plant Protection, 27(4), 459-466. [In Farsi]
Rieger, S., Richner, W., Streit, B., Frossard, E. and Liedgens, M. (2008). Growth, yield and yield components of winter wheat and the effects of tillage intensity, preceding crops, and N fertilization. European Journal of Agronomy, 28(3), 405-411.
Samarajeewa, K. B. D. P., Horiuchi, T. and Oba, S. (2006). Finger millet (Eleucine corocana L. Gaertn.) as a cover crop on weed control, growth and yield of soybean under different tillage systems. Soil and Tillage Research, 90(1), 93-99.
Sarajuoghi, M., Mafakheri, S., Rostami, R. and Shahbazi, M. (2012). Repeseed residue management for weed control and corn production. Indian Journal Science Technology, 5(4), 2587-2588.
Sardar, M., Behdani, M. A., Eslami, V. and Mahmodi, S. (2015). The Effect of Soil Disturbance Methods and Weeds Control on the density and distribution of Cotton’s (Gossypium hirsutum) weeds after wheat. Agroecology, 7(2), 254-266. [In Farsi]
Silvertown, K. J. W. (1982). Introduction to plant population ecology. London, England: Longman Inc.
Smith, M. K., Smith, J. P. and Stirling, G. R. (2011). Integration of minimum tillage, crop rotation and organic amendments into a ginger farming system: Impacts on yield and soil borne diseases. Soil and Tillage Research, 114(2), 108-116.
Tullber, J. (2010). Tillage, traffic and sustainability-A challenge for ISTRO. Soil and Tillage Research, 111(1), 26-32.
Weaich, K., Bristow, K. L. and Cass, A. (1996). Simulating maize emergence using soil and climate data. Agronomy Journal, 88(4), 667-674.
Wiatrak, P. J., Wright, D. L. and Marois, J. J. (2006). The impact of tillage and residual nitrogen on wheat. Soil and Tillage Research, 91(1), 150-156.
 © 2020 by the authors. Licensee SCU, Ahvaz, Iran. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0 license) (