ارزیابی تنوع ژنتیکی ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف زیتون در برخی از شهرستان‌های استان خوزستان با استفاده از نشانگر مورفولوژیکی

نوع مقاله : علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد علوم باغبانی، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 استاد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
پژوهشها نشان دادهاند که برخی از صفات مورفولوژیکی میوه، هسته و برگ گیاه زیتون نظیر کمتر تحت تأثیر محیط قرار می‌گیرند و هر گونه تغییری در این صفات نتیجه تغییر در خزانه‌ژنی گیاه است لذا پژوهشی به ‌منظوربررسیتنوعژنتیکی 50 ژنوتیپ زیتون در شهرستان‌های باغملک، اندیکا، ایذه و لالی استان خوزستان با استفاده از خصوصیات مورفولوژیکی میوه، هسته و برگ در قالب طرح آماری لانه آشیانه‌ای در سال 1395-1394 به اجرا درآمد. نتایج نشان داد که دامنهوسیعیازتغییرات مورفولوژیکیدر بینژنوتیپ‌ها وجود داشت. نتایج تجزیه به عامل‌ها نیز نشان داد که 12 مؤلفه در مجموع 7/78 درصد از واریانس کل صفات را توجیه نمودند. اولین مؤلفه 42/13 درصد از واریانس کل را توجیه نمود و در این عامل، طول میوه (63/0)، عرض میوه (61/0)، وزن‌تر میوه (61/0)، شکل هسته (7/0-)، عرض هسته (66/0)، طول هسته (44/0-)، تعداد شیار (40/0) و طول برگ (5/0) ضریب بالایی داشتند. همچنین صفاتی نظیر طول و عرض میوه، هسته و برگ، شکل هسته و برگ، خمش برگ، تعداد شیار هسته، قاعده میوه در موقعیت A، وزن هسته، سطح هسته در موقعیت B، تقارن هسته در موقعیت A، اندازه عدسک روی میوه، توزیع شیار روی هسته، تقارن هسته در موقعیت B از جمله مهم‌ترین صفات در تفکیک ژنوتیپ‌ها و گروه‌بندی شهرستان‌های مورد مطالعه از یکدیگر بودند. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از تجزیه خوشه‌ای، ژنوتیپ‌ها به شش گروه مجزا تقسیم شدند. ژنوتیپهای متعلق به شهرستان باغملک دارای بیشترین یکنواختی اما ژنوتیپهای متعلق به شهرستان لالی، ایذه، اندیکا دارای بیشترین غیریکنواختی بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Different Olive Genotypes in Some Cities of Khuzestan Province Using Morphological Marker

نویسندگان [English]

  • Syrus Safipour 1
  • Esmaeil Khaleghi 2
  • Noorollah Moallemi 3
1 M.Sc. Graduate of Horticultural Science, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Olive (Olea europaea) is compatible with Mediterranean and Mediterranean-like climates. Due to its high adaptability to different environmental conditions, this plant has adapted well to the varied climates in the world. It has extensively been cultivated in some regions of Iran to the extent that some cultivars do not have any identification. Therefore, a genotype/variety may be classified under several names and several varieties under a single name. Also, lack of garden information, re-naming of imported cultivars, and non-standard morphological traits for naming has led to fundamental problems in the pomology industry. Accordingly, it is necessary and inevitable to eliminate these ambiguities and accurately identify different olives’ genotypes in Iran. Hense, the first step in identifying the genotype is morphological identification. To this aim, the present research was conducted to investigate the genetic diversity and the relationship between the olive trees cultivated in some of the cities of Khuzestan through exploring morphological traits.
 
Materials and Methods
This study was conducted in Indica, Baghmalek, Izeh, and Lali in 2015-2016. Fifty genotypes were collected from the orchards of the Andika, Baghmalek, Izeh and, Lali. The morphological traits of fruit, stone, and leaf were measured according to the IOOC guidelines and the Seed and Plant Certification and Registration Institute for Research (2007) guidelines. The variance analysis of the traits was performed using SAS 9.1 software as a nested design. Cluster analysis was used for the determination of the degree of relationship between genotypes. The main components and biplot analysis were used to reduce the number of variables.
 
Results
The results showed that there was a wide range of morphological variations among genotypes. Factor and principal components analysis showed that 12 components could justify 87.7% of the variation among genotypes. The first component explained 13.42% of the total variance. In this factor, fruit length (0.63), fruit width (0.61), fruit weight (0.61), stone shape (-0.7), stone width (0.66), stone length (-0.44), and leaf length (0.5) had a high coefficient. Moreover, traits such as length and width of fruit, stone and leaf, stone and leaf shape, curvature of leaf, stone number grooves, fruit base in position A, stone weight, stone surface in position B,  stone symmetry in position A, fruit size of lenticels, stone distribution of grooves, stone symmetry in position B, were the most important traits in genotyping and grouping of the cities studied. Based on the results of cluster analysis, the genotypes were divided into six distinct groups.
 
Discussion
In general, it was found that most of the genotypes in Baghmalek city are located in a separate cluster. In contrast, several genotypes in Lali, Izeh, and Indica are situated in a single cluster, which can be due to atmospheric differences in precipitation rates in these cities. Izeh, Lali, and Indica have lower temperatures and more atmospheric precipitation than Bagmalek. This important difference can cause the genotypes of these cities to be different compared to Baghmalek city.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biplot Analysis
  • Cluster analysis
  • Factor Analysis
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