بررسی تغییرات ترکیبات فیتوشیمیایی میوه خرما رقم برحی طی روند نمو و رسیدن

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز‌، اهواز ایران

3 استاد، گروه زیست‌شناسی، داشکده علوم، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز‌ و مرکز تحقیقات بیوتکنولوژی و علوم زیستی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز‌، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
رقم برحی یکی از مرغوب‌ترین ارقام خرما می‌باشد که میوه آن در مراحل مختلف نمو مانند خارک، رطب و خرما برداشت و مصرف دارد. در پژوهش حاضر خصوصیات کیفی و بیوشیمیایی میوه خرما رقم برحی در طول دوره نمو و رسیدن بررسی گردید. به این منظور میوه‌ها در مراحل مختلف نمو شامل اواخر کیمری، خارک کامل، عمدتاً خارک، عمدتاً رطب، رطب کامل و خرما برداشت‌شده و از نظر ویژگی‌هایی نظیر کلروفیل کل، کاروتنوئید کل، انواع قندها، نشاسته، مواد فنولی کل، فلاونوئید کل، ویتامین ث، ظرفیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی، انواع اسیدهای فنولی و اسیدهای آلی مورد مقایسه قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که قندهای محلول در طول دوره رسیدن افزایش چشمگیری داشت. قندهای گلوکز و فروکتوز در رقم برحی غالب بوده و مقدار ساکارز ناچیز بود. اسیدیته میوه در ابتدا افزایش و سپسکاهش یافت و در مرحله خرما با افزایشی قابل توجه به 45/2 میلی‌گرم در گرم وزن تر رسید. از میان اسیدهای آلی تشخیص داده‌شده، در مرحله تمار، اسید استیک بیشترین غلظت را داشت ولی در مراحل قبلی نمو، اسید‌مالیک غالبیت داشت. عمده ترکیبات دیگر بررسی‌شده شامل فلاونوئید، کلروفیل کل، کاروتنوئید، نشاسته و ویتامین ث در طول نمو کاهش یافتند. در بررسی اسیدهای فنولی توسط کروماتوگرافی مایع با عملکرد بالا اسیدهای پی‌سینامیک، جنتیستیک، گالیک، کلروجنیک، وانیلیک، کافئیک، سیرینجیک و پی‌کوماریک در میوه ردیابی شدند، که اسیدگالیک بالاترین غلظت را داشت و روند تغییرات آن در طول نمو افزایشی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Study of Changes in Phytochemical Compounds of Date Fruit cv. Barhee During Development and Ripening

نویسندگان [English]

  • Solaleh Najafi Marghmaleki 1
  • Mohamadhasan Mortazavi 2
  • Hossein Motamedi 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz and Biology and Biotechnology Research Center, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Studying phytochemical changes of fruits is very important for plant physiologists and pomologists. Date is an important horticultural fruit in Iran mainly produced in southern regions. Barhee is considered one of the most important date palm cultivars. The fruit of cv. Barhee can be harvested and consumed at different maturation stages including Khalal, Rutab and Tamar. In the present study, the biochemical alterations of date fruit cv. Barhee during development and ripening stages were studied.
 
Materials and Methods
The experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Sampling was done at Date Palm Research Institute Collection Orchard located in Ahvaz. First, fruits were harvested in five different developmental stages including late Kimri, Khalal, mainly Khalal, mainly Rutab, fully Rutab and Tamar. The fruits were then transferred to Quality Analysis Lab of Department of Horticultural Science at Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. Selected uniform fruits were used for the analysis of different phytochemical compounds. Chlorophyll, carotenoid, starch, soluble sugars, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and antioxidant capacity were analysed using spectrophotometric methods. The type and concentration of sugars, organic acids, and phenolics were assessed using HPLC. Also, vitamin C content was determined by titration againt DCIP dye.
 
Results
The results showed that soluble sugars increased significantly during ripening stages, and glucose and fructose were the main detected sugars for Barhee cultivar. The amount of sucrose was negligible. The acidity of the fruit increased at initial growth stages and then decreased gradually till Rutab stage. At the end of ripening process and at Tamar stage, the amount of organic acid content increased to 2.45 mg/g FW. Among the detected organic acids, acetic acid was dominant in Tamar stage, while in the earlier stages malic acid was considered the main organic acid. Other major investigated compounds, including flavonoids, chlorophylls, carotenoids, starch and vitamin C decreased during the development. Different compounds including p-cinamic, gintistic, gallic, chlorogenic, vanilic, caffeic, syringic and p-cumaric acids were detected by HPLC evaluation of phenolic acids. Among them, gallic acid was the dominant, and the trend was incremental during the development of fruit.
 
Discussion
Comparing the current results with published data for other date cultivars shows that there are considerable differences in biochemical compounds among different cultivars. In this cultivar, the increasing trend of accumulation of soluble sugars, organic acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity during ripening stages from late Kimri to Rutab and Tamar stage makes the fruit an important source of essential nutrients. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Growth Stages
  • Nutritional Value
  • Quality
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