کنترل شیمیایی کاتوس (Cynanchum acutum) در مزارع پلنت نیشکر

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت ، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان ، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
علف‌ هرزکاتوس از مهم‌ترین عوامل محدود‌کننده کشت نیشکر می‌باشد. به منظور تعیین کارایی علف‌کش ایندازیفلم در مقایسه با سایر علف‌کش‌های مورد کاربرد در نیشکر بر مهار علف ‌هرزکاتوس، آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 7 تیمار و چهار تکرار در یکی از مزارع پلنت منطقه شعیبیه شوشتر درسال96-1395 انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی در این مطالعه شامل کاربرد علف‌کش ایندازیفلم به مقادیر50 و 75 گرم ماده مؤثره در هکتار به‌صورت پیش‌رویشی؛ تری‌فلوکسی‌سولفورون + آمترین به میزان 1875 گرم ماده خالص در هکتار به‌صورت پس‌رویشی؛ تو، فور-دی + ام‌سی‌پی‌آ به میزان 5/1687 گرم ماده خالص در هکتار؛ گلیفوزیت 6 لیتر در هکتار + سولفات آمونیوم 8 لیتر در هکتار؛ شاهد عاری از علف ‌هرز (وجین‌شده) و شاهد آلوده به علف ‌هرز (بدون تیمار علف‌کش). نتایج نشان داد که ایندازیفلم به میزان 75 و 50 گرم ماده مؤثر در هکتار ماده تجارتی بیشترین تأثیر را در مهارکاتوس، هم از نظر درصد کاهش تراکم به مقدار (09/85، 18/66 درصد) و هم از نظر درصد کاهش وزن خشک کاتوس به میزان (2/82، 90/60 درصد) نشان داد. بهترین تیمار از نظر وزن تک ساقه (72/0 کیلوگرم)،قطر میانگره وسط (85/1 سانتی‌متر)، تعداد میانگره (2/18) و عملکرد نی (92/117 تن در هکتار) نیشکر متعلق به تیمار ایندازیفلم به‌میزان 75 گرم ماده مؤثر در هکتار بود. بیشترین درصد بریکس، درصد قند اینورت، شکر استحصالی و کمترین میزان الیاف به‌ترتیب با مقادیر 48/21، 533/0؛ 26/11و 61/12 (تن در هکتار) متعلق به تیمار ایندازیفلم به‌ میزان 75 گرم ماده مؤثر در هکتار بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Chemical Control of Cynanchum acutum in Sugarcane Plant Fields

نویسندگان [English]

  • Iman Ahmadi 1
  • Mohammad hossain Gharineh 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Agriculture, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Khuzestan Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Weeds are the most important factors in sugarcane yield loss. Successful weed control is essential for economical sugarcane production. Weeds can reduce suercane yields by competing for moisture, nutrients, and light during the growing season. Weed control is most critical early in the season prior to sugarcane canopy closure over the middle rows middles. Herbicides can be useful and economical tools in sugarcane production. Indaziflam is an alkylazine herbicide that is labeled for use in turf, for perennial crops and for nonagricultural situations for preemergent control of grasses and broad leaf weeds. The objective of this research was evaluation of the efficacy of indaziflam on control of Cynanchum acutum in sugarcane fields in Khouzestan, Iran.
 
Materials and Methods
The experiment was conducted in 2015 growing season in a sugarcane field Shoaeibiyeh, Shoushtar, Khouzestan, Iran. The trial was randomized in complete block design with four replications. Variety and type of culture were Cp69-102 and plant, respectively. Treatments were 1-indaziflam (75 g ai ha-1, as preemergence); 2-indaziflam (50 g ai ha-1 as preemergence); 3- Trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryn (1875 g ai ha-1,as postemergence); 4-2,4-D+MCPA (1687.5 g ai ha-1); 5-glyphosate + Ammonium sulfate 6- weeding and 7- weed infested. The herbicides were applied with backpack sprayer equipped with flooding and T-jet nozzles calibrated to deliver 300 L ha-1. Every two weeks, dry weight and density reduction percentage of Cynanchum acutum were measured and 90 days after herbicide applying, stem length, stem weight, the middle internode diameter and length of sugarcane and also purity, pol and recoverable sugar of sugarcane were determined. Statistical calculations were accomplished through the SAS 9.2 software and graphs were drawn by the Excel software.
 
Results
However, indaziflam efficacy was reduced over time. Other herbicides such as indaziflam as
50 g ai ha-1 and trifloxysulfuron sodium + ametryn indicated a good effect in Cynanchum acutum control compared with 24-D + MCPA and glyphosate + Ammonium sulfate. Single stem weight
(0.72 kg), the middle internode diameter (1.85 cm), number of internode (18. 2 cm) and cane yield
(117.90 t ha-1) were the greatest in indaziflam (75 g ai ha-1). The greatest brix (21.48%), invert sugar (0.533%), recoverable sugar (11.26%) and the lowest fiber content (12.61 t ha-1) were obtained in indaziflam treat (75 g ai ha-1).
 
Discussion
The present research indicatedindaziflam could control Cynanchum acutum in sugarcane field although indaziflam efficacy was reduced over time. However, there were no adverse effects of indaziflam rates on sugarcane observed; therefore, this herbicide could be used in sugarcane fields. Since highly intensive use of herbicides in fields causes to herbicide resistance, herbicides with different mechanisms of action should be registered for weed control of sugarcane. Because of low volume of indaziflam as compared to current herbicide of sugarcane, this is a good candidate for application in sugarcane fields in rotation or mixture with other recommended herbicides.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Pol and recoverable sugar
  • Purity
  • Sugarcane yield
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