عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives
Chrysanthemum, due to numerous applications in floriculture and medicinal industries has been considered one of the most important ornamental plants and medicinal plants in the global area. In addition to being used as a cut flower, it also has a special place among potted flowers and gardens. Also, it is used as a medicinal plant with strong healing properties in traditional Chinese medicine and considered to treat eye diseases, headaches, colds, and etc. However, only a few reports have been presented in the field of genetic diversity of Chrysanthemums by morphological and molecular markers. Therefore, there is a need for further identification of germplasm and cultivars of Chrysanthemums in Iran. This study aimed to assess the genetic diversity of 15 cultivars of Chrysanthemums based on morphological characteristics and selection of cultivar adapted to Khorramabad region.
Materials and Methods
This experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the area of Beiran-Shahr, Lorestan province in 2017. Twenty-one morphological characteristics were determined from fresh materials. These traits in accordance with the given instructions describing World UPOV Chrysanthemums, were measured. Quantitative measurements were carried out on 10 leaves per cultivars. Some variables including diameter (branches, petioles, discs, buds and flowers) were measured by digital caliper. The traits such as length and width of leaf, plant height, length and width of the tab florets with ruler were measured.
Based on data analysis most of the traits in cultivars showed significant differences (p≤0.01). Results showed that the correlation between leaf area with leaf width, petiole diameter and number of leaves has a positive and significant correlation with the probability level of 5%. The most significant and negative correlation (r = 0.99) was observed between number of flowers per plant and number of florets. Based on the results obtained from principal components analysis, seven independent and major components with Eigen values greater than one could explain 89 percent of the total variation. The first component, verified 24.4 percent of the total variation. Cluster analysis of cultivars in Euclidean distance of 26.68, was categorized into two main groups. The cultivars "Avadis" and "Norooz3" in the first group were distinguished from the rest of the cultivars with the lowest height. The "Fariba"; "Ashraf" and "Andiea" cultivars were placed in the group and most abundant cultivars.
Based on the results, leaf size, plant height, number of branches and number of flowers in plant traits were most important in recognizing the diversity of cultivars Chrysanthemum. By using some cultivars belonging to the first cluster with less height and cultivars in the second cluster with more leaves and flowers as a parent, a new cycle of Chrysanthemum breeding program can be initiated.