بهبود ویژگی‌های کیفی و آنتی‌اکسیدانی گوشت و پوست میوه مرکبات در مدت انبارداری با محلول‌پاشی قبل از برداشت میوه‌ها با کلراید کلسیم

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار پژوهشی، گروه فیزیولوژی و فناوری پس از برداشت، پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه گرمسیری، موسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج

2 استادیار پژوهشی، گروه فیزیولوژی و فناوری پس از برداشت، پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه گرمسیری، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر، ایران

3 استادیار پژوهشی، گروه ژنتیک و به‌نژادی، پژوهشکده مرکبات و میوه‌های نیمه گرمسیری، مؤسسه تحقیقات علوم باغبانی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رامسر، ایران

چکیده

محلول‌پاشی قبل از برداشت درختان با کلراید کلسیم یکی از شیوه‌های کارا و بی‌خطر برای حفظ و بهبود کیفیت میوه‌ها در مدت انبارداری است. بنابراین، هدف از این پژوهش بررسی تأثیر محلول‌پاشی میوه‌های مرکبات (ارقام پرتقال تامسون، مورو و نارنگی رقم پیج) مدت سه مرحله (120، 140 و 160 روز پس از تمام گل مدت تابستان سال 90) با غلظت‌های مختلف کلراید کلسیم (صفر، 1، 2 و 4 درصد) بر بهبود خواص کیفی و آنتی‌اکسیدانی میوه‌ها در مدت نگهداریبود. میوه‌ها پس از برداشت در دمای 5 درجه سلسیوس و رطوبت نسبی 85 درصد به مدت 60 روز نگهداری شدند. در مدت انبارداری (روزهای صفر، 30 و 60) برخی از خصوصیات فیزیکی-شیمیایی پوست و گوشت میوه اندازه‌گیری شد. نتایج نشان داد که درصد کاهش وزن میوه‌های محلول‌پاشی‌شده با کلراید کلسیم در مدت انبارداری به‌طور معنی‌داری کمتر از شاهد بود.میزان کاروتنوئید گوشت میوه هر سه رقم نیز با افزایش غلظت کلرایدکلسیم در مقایسه با شاهد در مدت نگهداریافزایش نشان داد. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که فعالیت آنزیم SOD در زمان برداشت در بافت گوشت و پوست میوه‌های محلول‌پاشی‌شده در هر سهرقم نسبت به شاهد بیشتر بود. فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی (میزان IC50) بافت گوشت و پوست بسته به رقم و تیمار متفاوت بود؛ به‌طوری‌که بیشترین فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی مربوط به رقم تامسون در زمان برداشت و در میوه‌های تیمار‌شده با غلظت بالای کلرایدکلسیم بود. در مجموع می‌توان گفت که محلول‌پاشی قبل از برداشت درختان مرکبات با کلراید کلسیم می‌تواند موجب بهبود و یا حفظ ویژگی‌های کیفی گوشت و پوست میوه در مدت انبارداری گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improving Quality and Antioxidant Characteristics of Pulp and Peel of Citrus During Storage by Pre-Harvest Spray of Calcium Chloride on Fruit

نویسندگان [English]

  • Javad Fatahi Moghadam 1
  • Abuzar Hashempour 2
  • Reza Fifaei 3
1 Research Associate, Department of Post-harvest Physiology and Technology, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Iranian Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran
2 Research Assistant, Department of Post-harvest Physiology and Technology, Citrus and Subtropical Fruits Research Center, Iranian Horticultural Sciences Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Ramsar, Iran
3 Department of plant breeding' citrus and subtropical center, Ramsar , Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Calcium is a key plant nutrient with significant functions including reducing fruit senescence; calcium deficiency has been involved in several physiological disorders in fruits. Pre-harvest foliar application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) is an efficient and safe strategy to maintain or improve the fruit quality during storage. Also, calcium significantly increases the membrane and cell wall density and reduces the physiological disorders of the fruit. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-harvest CaCl2 sprays of citrus trees at three fruit development stages on improving fruit quality and antioxidant capacity during storage.
 
Materials and Methods
To conduct this research, citrus trees of three different varieties (‘Thomson’, ‘Moro’ and ‘Page’) were sprayed with different concentrations of CaCl2 (0, 1, 2 and 4%) at three fruit development stages (120, 140 and 160 days after full bloom). After harvesting, citrus fruits were stored at 5°C and 85% relative humidity for 60 days. Then, weight loss and juice percentage, total carotenoids, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (IC50 content) of the fruits peel and pulp were determined on 0 (harvesting time), 30 and 60 days. Data were analyzed using SAS (Ver.9.1) and significance of the differences between the means was computed using Tukey test. 
 
Results
Results showed that weight loss percentage in fruit treated with CaCl2 (especially in 2 and 4% treatments) of all three cultivars was significantly less than control during storage. Total carotenoid of pulp of Thomson and Moro cultivars increased with increasing of CaCl2 concentrations compared to control during storage. In Page mandarin, the carotenoid content of pulp was not affected by calcium chloride treatment. Results also showed that SOD activity in peel and pulp of treated fruits was higher than control at harvest time. At the time of harvesting, the peel APX activity of Thomson and Moro cultivars (control) was higher than those treated by calcium. Antioxidant capacity (based on IC50 content) of peel and pulp varied depending on the cultivar and the treatment. That is, the highest antioxidant capacity was determined in ‘Thomson’ at harvest time and in treated fruits with high level of CaCl2.
 
Discussion
In the present study, the CaCl2 pre-treatment was sprayed on the citrus trees and the results indicated that pre-harvest calcium chloride significantly decreases weight loss percentage and increases antioxidant capacity, SOD activity and total carotenoid contents in citrus fruits during storage. It seems that the accessibility of sufficient CaCl2 during plant growth has a strong influence on concentrations of bioactive compounds and overall antioxidant properties of citrus fruits. Overall, it is suggested that an appropriate CaCl2 pre-treatment of citrus tree can help improve or maintain pulp and peel quality during storage. It is further suggested, using chlorine-free calcium sources in southern Iran with alkaline soils.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • Calcium
  • Fruit quality
  • Shelf life
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