ارزیابی صفات فیزیولوژیک بادام‌زمینی (Arachis hypogaea L.) در واکنش به سرزنی بوته‌ها و روش‌های کاربرد نانوکلات‌های روی و کلسیم

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، گروه زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

2 استادیار بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گیلان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، رشت، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

چکیده

به ‌منظور ارزیابی اثر سرزنی بوته‌ها و مصرف عناصر روی و کلسیم و روش‌های کاربرد آن‌ها بر صفات فیزیولوژیک بادام‌زمینی در منطقه رشت، آزمایشی در بهار سال 1395 در مزرعه آزمایشی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گیلان به‌صورت کرت‌های دو بار خرد‌شده با طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل مصرف نانوکلات روی، نانوکلات کلسیم، استفاده تلفیقی از آن‌ها و عدم مصرف کود (شاهد) به‌عنوان کرت اصلی، روش کاربرد نانوکلات‌ها نظیر مصرف خاکی، محلول‌پاشی و کاربرد تلفیقی آن‌ها به‌عنوان کرت فرعی و سرزنی ساقه اصلی گیاه از ارتفاع 10 و 20 سانتی‌متر و عدم سرزنی (شاهد)، به‌عنوان کرت فرعی فرعی بود. در این آزمایش، بیشترین عملکرد دانه، عملکرد زیست‌توده، عملکرد میوه (غلاف) و تولید پوسته بادام‌زمینی تحت تأثیر کاربرد توام نانوکلات‌های روی و کلیسم به روش تلفیقی مصرف خاکی و محلول‌پاشی و سرزنی ساقه اصلی بادام‌زمینی از ارتفاع 20 سانتی‌متری به‌دست آمد. بیشترین عملکرد علوفه تر و علوفه خشک تحت شرایط کاربرد نانوکلات کلسیم به‌روش تلفیقی خاکی و محلول‌پاشی و سرزنی ساقه اصلی بادام‌زمینی از ارتفاع 10 سانتی‌متری مشاهده شد. ولی، بالاترین درصد غلاف‌های پوک در بوته و شاخص برداشت میوه در شرایط عدم سرزنی ساقه بادام‌زمینی به‌دست آمد. به‌نظر می‌رسد که کاربرد مجزای کلسیم می‌تواند رشد زایشی بادام‌زمینی را بهبود بخشد. ولی، کمبود عنصر روی در طول دوره رشد زایشی سبب افزایش تعداد غلاف‌های پوک به ‌دلیل کاهش احتمالی ظرفیت فتوسنتزی گیاه می‌شود. به‌طور‌کلی، کابرد توام نانوکلات‌های روی و کلسیم و روش تلفیقی کاربرد آن‌ها و سرزنی بوته‌های بادام‌زمینی از ارتفاع 20 سانتی‌متری سبب افزایش عملکرد میوه و دانه بادام‌زمینی در شرایط اقلیمی گیلان گردید.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Physiological Characteristics in Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in Response to Plant Cutting and Application Methods of Zn and Ca nano-Chelates

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amin Nobahar 1
  • Marefat Mostafavi Rad 2
  • Hamid reza Zakerin 3
  • Saeed Sayfzadeh 3
  • Ali reza Valadabadi 4
1 Ph. D Student, Agronomy Depertment, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad Uiversity, Takestan, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Guilan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Rasht, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad Uiversity, Takestan, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad Uiversity, Takestan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is one of the most important legume crops and it is rich in oil (47-53 %) and protein (25-36 %). Peanut has very high nutrient requirement. On the contrary severe mineral nutrient deficiency due to inadequate and imbalanced use of nutrients is one of the major factors responsible for low yield in peanut (Kabir et al., 2013). Zinc (Zn) plays an important role in the production of biomass. Furthermore, Zn may be required for chlorophyll production, pollen function and fertilization (Kaya and Higgs, 2002; Pandey et al., 2006). Among the nutrients, Zn deficiency causes yield loss to the maximum of 40% in peanut (Arunachalam et al., 2013). Plant response to Zn deficiency occurs in terms of decrease in membrane integrity, susceptibility to heat stress, decreased synthesis of carbohydrates, cytochromes nucleotide, auxin and chlorophyll (Singh, 2007). Calcium (Ca) is required by peanut plants from the initial stage of pegs appearance until pods maturity. Ca deficiency aborts or shrivels fruit and leads to high percentage of empty pods. The comparison of the various methods of peanut plants fertilization is more important. Peanuts need full sun and topping of main stem in peanut plants could improve solar radiance penetration in to the canopy. Thus, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of plant topping, Zn and Ca nano-fertilizers and their application on peanut yield.
 
Materials and Methods
This experiment was carried out in 2016 cropping season as split split plot arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Nano-chelates including nano-chelated Zn, nano-chelated Ca and simultaneous usage of nano-chelated Zn and nano-chelated Ca fertilizers and check as the main plots, the application of methods such as the soil utilization of nano-chelates, foliar application and integrated method of the soil utilization and foliar application of fertilizers as sub plots, and topping of the main stem at 10 and 20 centimeters above the floor and no topping as control comprised the experimental treatments.
 
Results
In this experiment, the highest seed yield, biological yield, fruit (pod) yield and peanut hull production were observed as affected by simultaneous usage of Zn and Ca nano- chelates, integrated method of the soil utilization and foliar application of Zn and Ca nano- chelates and topping of the main stem at 20 centimeters above the floor. The greatest fresh forage and hay yield was shown under simultaneous usage of Zn and Ca nono- chelates integrated method of the soil application and foliar spraying of Zn and Ca nano-chelates and topping of the main stem at 10 centimeters above the floor. But the highest percentage of hollow pods per plant and fruit harvest index were achieved under no topping of the peanut stem.
 
Discussion
It seems that dividing Ca nano-chelate application could improve peanut reproductive growth. But Zn deficiency during the reproductive growth enhanced hollow pod numbers due to probable photosynthetic capability increment of peanut plant.In general, simultaneous application of Zn and Ca nano-chelates and integrated methods of their usage and topping of the main stem at 20 centimeters above the floor increased fruit and grain yield of peanut under Guilan climatic condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Agronomic traits
  • Nano-chelate
  • Photosynthetic capability
  • Radiance
  • Yield
References
Anonymous. (2017). Management and Planing Organization of Guilan (MPO). (Accessed October 2017). Retrieved fromhttp/www.//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management_and_Planning_Organization_of_Iran. [In Farsi]
Arunachalam, P., Kannan, P., Prabukumar, G. and Govindaraj, M. (2013). Zinc deficiency in Indian soils with special focus to enrich zinc in peanut. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(50), 6681-6688.
Baghaie, N., Keshavarz, N. and Nazaran, M. H. (2011). Effect of nano iron chelate fertilizer on yield and yield components of rice (Shiroudi cultivar). 1st National Conference on New Concepts in Agriculture, Saveh, Iran. [In Farsi]
Baybordi, A. and Mamedov, G. (2010). Evaluation of application methods efficiency of zinc and iron for canola (Brassica napus L.). Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, 2(1), 94-103.
Cakmak, I. (2008). Enrichment of cereal grains with zinc: Agronomic or genetic biofortification. Plant and Soil, 302(1), 1-17.
Daghan, H., Uygur, V., Koleli, N., Arslan, M. and Eren, A. (2013). The effect of heavy metal treatments on uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in transgenic and non-transgenic tobacco plants. Journal of Agricultural Science, 19(2), 129-139.
Dashadi, M. and Pezeshkpoor, P. (2018). Investigating phosphorous and zinc levels on quantity and quality characters of two cultivars chickpea. Journal of Plant Productions, 41(3), 13-25.
Der, H. N., Vaghasia, P. M. and Verma, H. P. (2015). Effect of foliar application of potash and micronutrients on growth and yield attributes of groundnut. Journal of Agricultural Research, 36(3), 275-278.
Eismailpour, S., Asghari, J., Safarzadeh Vishgayi, M. N. and Samizadeh Lahiji, H. (2013). Effect of Sulphur and zinc on growth and yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research, 11(2), 283-290. [In Farsi]
Hosseinzadeh Gashti A., Esfahani, M., Asghari, J., Safarzadeh Vishkaee M. and Rabeie, B. (2009). Effect of sulfur application on growth indices and yield of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Journal of Science and Technology of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 13(2), 27-39. [In Farsi]
Irmak, S., Nuran Cil, A., Yucel, H. and Kaya, Z. (2015). Effects of zinc application on yield and some yield components in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the easthern mediterranean region. Journal of Agricultural Science, 22(1), 109-116.
Jalili Sheshbahre, M., Movahhedi Dehnavi, M. and Hashemi Jazi, S. M. (2013). Quantity and quality improving of soybean yield by zinc and iron foliar application under drought stress. Journal of Plant Productions (Agronomy, Breeding and Horticulture), 36(2), 111-122.
Jashni, R., Fateh, E. and Aynehband, A. (2017). Effect of thiobacillus and nitrocara biological fertilizers and foliar application of zinc and iron on some qualitative characteristic and remobilization of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). Journal of the Plant Production (Agronomy, Breeding and Horticulture), 40(1), 1-15. [In Farsi].
Kamara, E. G., Olympio, N. S. and Asibuo, J. Y. (2011). Effect of calcium and phosphorus fertilizer on the growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science, 8(1), 326-331.
Kaya, C. and David, H. (2002). Response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cultivars to foliar application of zinc when grown in sand culture at low zinc. Scientia Horticulturae, 93(1), 5-64.
Khan, M. A., Din, J., Nasreen, S., Khan, M. Y., Khan, S. U. and Gurmani, A. R. (2009). Response of sunflower to different levels of zinc and iron under irrigated conditions. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 25(2), 159-163.
Kirthisinghe, J. P., Thilakarathna, S., Gunathilaka, B. L. and Dissanayaka, D. (2014). Impact of applying calcium on yield and visual quality of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). Advance Crop Science and Technology, 25(3), 432-436.
Ma, X., Lee, J.G., Deng, Y. and Kolmakov, A. (2010). Interactions between engineered nanoparticles and plants: Phytotoxicity, uptake and accumulation. Science of the Total Environment, 408(16), 3053-3061.
Majidian M., Shoja, T. and Rabiei, M. (2015). Effects of S, B, Zn, and their interaction on quantitative and qualitative yields of rapeseed as second crop in the paddy field. Journal of Plant Production (Agronomy, Breeding and Horticulture), 38(2), 35-50.
Mostafavi Rad, M., Tahmasebi Sarvestani, Z., Modares Sanavy, S. A. M. and Ghalavand, A. (2014). Seed yield and macro nutrients content comparison in 15 varieties of winter rapeseed as affected by sulphur utilization. Electronic Journal of Crop Production, 7(3), 75-88. [In Farsi]
Nakhzari Moghaddam, A. (2012). Effect of topping and plant density on yield and yield components of barakat cultivar of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) in Gonbad Kavous. Iranian Crop Science, 44(4), 703-710. [In Farsi]
Ozyigit, Y. and Mellmet, B. (2013). Forage potential of some groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) cultivars. Romanian Agricultural Research, 30(4), 57-63.
Pandey, N., Pathak, G. C. and Sharma, C. P. (2006). Zinc is critically required for pollen function and fertilization in lentil. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 20, 89-96.
Panjtandoust, M., Sorooshzadeh, A. and Ghanati, F. (2010). Effect of iron soil and spray applied on some qualify characteristics of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) plants in a calcareous soil. Journal of Plant Biology, 5(2), 37-50. [In Farsi]
Pendashteh, M., Tarighi, F., Ziaei Doustan, H., Keshavarz, A. K., Mazapour, E., Moradi, M. and Bozorgi, H. R. (2011). Effect of foliar zinc spraying and nitrogen fertilization on seed yield and several attributes of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). World Applied Sciences Journal, 13(5), 1209-1217.
Pilehvari Khomami, R., Safarzadeh Vishkaei, M. N., Sajedi, N., Rasuli, M. and Moradi, M. (2008). Effect of methanol and zinc application on peanut qualitative and quantitative characteristic in Guilan region. New Findings in Agriculture, 4(8), 13-19. [In Farsi]
Ronald, B., Sorensen, R., Nuti, C. and Christopher, L. (2009). Yield and plant growth response of peanut to midseason forage harvest. Agronomy Journal, 101(5), 1198-1203.
Salehin, F. and Rahman, S. (2012). Effects of zinc and nitrogen fertilizer and their application method on yield and yield components of (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Agricultural Science, 3(1), 9-13.
Singh, A. L. (2007). Prevention and correction of zinc deficiency of groundnut in India. Proceeding of Zinc Crops 2007 Conference for improving crop production and human health, 24‐26th May 2007, Istanbul, Turkey.