تأثیر سه گونه از قارچ‌های ریشه‌ای آربسکولار بر رشد و جذب برخی از عناصر غذایی در گیاه آهار در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم باغبانی، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر(عج) رفسنجان، رفسنجان، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر رفسنجان رفسنجان، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ولی عصر(عج) رفسنجان ، رفسنجان، ایران

4 استاد، گلکاری و گیاهان زینتی گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شیراز‌، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

خشکی یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل محدود‌کننده محیطی می‌باشد که رشد و بهره‌وری گیاه را بیشتر از فاکتورهای محیطی دیگر محدود می‌کند. به‌ منظور بررسی اثر سه ایزوله شناسایی‌شده از قارچ های ریشه‌ای آربسکولار بر رشد و غلظت عناصر غذایی فسفر، پتاسیم، آهن، روی، مس و منگنز گیاه آهار در شرایط تنش خشکی، آزمایش گلخانه‌ای با دو فاکتور شامل پنج سطح میکوریز (بدون میکوریز به‌عنوان شاهد، Rhizophagus irregularis، Rhizophagus intraradisces، Funneliformis mosseaeو ترکیب سه ایزوله) و چهار سطح تنش خشکی (آبیاری بر حد100 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه به‌عنوان شاهد، 80، 60 و 40 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) با شش تکرار در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی انجام گرفت. دانهال‌ها در مرحله چهار برگ حقیقی به گلدان‌های پلاستیکی 2/1 کیلوگرمی انتقال داده شدند و بلافاصله با گونه‌های میکوریز تلقیح شدند. بر اساس نتایج به‌دست آمده، خصوصیات رویشی با افزایش خشکی به‌طور معنی‌داری کاهش یافتند. همچنین تنش خشکی موجب کاهش جذب و انتقال عناصر گردید. کاربرد میکوریز به طور قابل ملاحظه‌ای رشد رویشی و غلظت عناصر را تحت تنش خشکی بهبود بخشید به‌طوری‌که ایزوله‌های R. irregularis، R. intraradisces، F. mosseae و ترکیب آن‌ها وزن خشک شاخساره را در سطح 40% ظرفیت مزرعه به‌ترتیب 20، 22، 20 و 11 درصد نسبت به گیاهان بدون میکوریزی افزایش داد. در مجموع نتایج این پژوهش نشان می‌دهند که تلقیح گیاه آهار با قارچ‌های میکوریز سبب افزایش مقاومت به خشکی در آن‌ها می‌گردد که حداقل بخشی از آن به افزایش در جذب برخی از یون‌های معدنی کم‌تحرک از قبیل فسفات و روی می‌باشد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Influence of three species of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on growth and nutrients uptake in zinnia plant under drought stress conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vahed Bagheri 1
  • Mohammad Hossein Shamshiri 2
  • Hossein Alaei 3
  • Hassan Salehi 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Horticultural Science, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
 
Background and Objectives
Drought is one of the major environmental constraints that limit plant growth and productivity more than any other environmental factor. Drought stress reduces normal growth, disturbs water relations and nutrition uptake in plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can increase plant tolerance to drought via direct water uptake and transport through fungal hyphae to the host plants, enhance nutrient uptake, improve osmotic adjustment and antioxidant activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of three AMF species (singly or in combination) on DS alleviation of zinnia seedlings (as a potentially drought-tolerant flower crop) grown under different DS levels.
 
Materials and Methods
To study the effects of three identified isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on growth and elements concentration (P, K, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn) of zinnia plants (Zinnia elegans L. var. Magellan Red) under drought stress condition, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with two factors including mycorrhiza at five levels (no mycorrhizae as control, Rhizophagus irregularis, Rhizophagus intraradisces, Funneliformis mosseae, Mix ) and four levels of drought stress (100% FC as control, 80% FC, 60% FC and 40% FC) with six replicates based on a completely randomized design (CRD). Seedlings with four true leaves were transplanted into 1 L pot and immediately inoculated with 210 spores per pot of the each of above symbionts. Control plants received the same amount of autoclaved inocula. The plants were irrigated with distilled water for 50 days to obtain certain amount of infection; then four irrigation regimes were achieved for four weeks.
 
Results
According to the results, vegetative growth traits like fresh and dry weight of shoot, root and flower leaf area and flower diameter were reduced significantly with increasing drought stress levels. Drought stress reduced uptake and transport of elements. The utilized AMF improved growth and nutrients uptake under drought stress considerably in 40% FC where R. irregularis, R. intraradisces, F. mosseae and mix increased dry weight of shoot by 20, 22, 20, 11 percent respectively in comparison with control.
 
Discussion
In conclusion, it is suggested that AMF inoculation improves drought tolerance of zinnia plants at least in part through the enhanced uptake of slowly diffusing mineral ions such as PO42- and Zn2+. Moreover, arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization provides better osmotic adjustment which can be correlated with K+ accumulation in top portions of inoculated plants. The results of this study showed that zinnia plants exhibited a better symbiotic relation with three identified isolates of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi especially with mixed treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Colonization
  • Mycorrhiza
  • Nutrition
  • phosphorus
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