Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Scinence Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Master of Entomology, Distribution of Agricultural Institutions in Srple-Zhab


Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the every green trees that tolerance to Drought. Olive is an economically important species of the Mediterranean area, so understanding the mechanisms by which olive plants face drought stress under environmental conditions is essential for the improvement of olive yield and oil quality. Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses that affect plant growth and development negatively. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of drought stress on some morphological characteristics of some superior local olive genotypes in pot condition was conducted in Dallaho Olive Research Station (geographical characters was longitude of 45˚, 51΄ E and latitude of 34˚, 30΄ N and the height of sea level 581m) located in Kermanshah province. In order to select drought resistant or tolerant local olive genotypes an experiment in pot conditions was conducted. Seven olive genotypes (D1, Dd1, GW, Ps1, Bn3, Bn6 and Ds17) used as plant materials. Pot experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications and two factors (irrigation regimes and genotypes) was conducted in 2015. Irrigation Ttreatment were including of 100% (control), 80%, 60% and 50% of evapotranspiration respectively. Some vegetative characteristics such as plant height, trunk diameter, leaf number, leaf, shoot, and root fresh and dry weight were recorded. Collected data were analyzed with MSTATC program. Obtained results showed that Bn3 genotype had the highest height and D1 had the lowest height. Bn3 genotype had the highest number of leaf and D1 had the lowest but D1, Dd1 and Gw were in a statistic class. Genotypes showed significant differences in leaf fresh and dry weight so that Bn3 genotype had the highest leaf fresh and dry weight and D1 had the lowest. Genotypes indicated significant differences in pot in shoot and root fresh and dry weight so that Ds17 genotype had the lowest shoot fresh and dry weight and Gw had the lowest root fresh and dry weight. and Bn6 had the lowest root dry weight/ shoot dry weight ratio. irrigation treatments significant differences in recorded vegetative and physiological characteristics so that 100 percent irrigation treatment increase relative water content percent (RWC), total chlorophyll. among olive genotypes Bn3 and Ds17 had the highest, relative water content percent (RWC), total chlorophyll and mda less produced. The results indicated that olive genotypes had different resistance to drought and vegetative growth status of Bn3 and Ds17 genotypes were better in drought stress conditions. It can be concluded that Bn3 and Ds17 genotype had the relatively high resistance to drought stress.


Main Subjects

Ahmadipour, S. and Arji, I. (2012). Evaluation on "Zard" and "Roghani" olive cultivars responses in different region of Kermanshah. Journal of Plant Production (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 35(1), 113-126. [In Farsi]
Arend, M. and J. Fromm. (2007). Seasonal change in the drought response of wood cell development in poplar. Tree Physiology, 27(7), 985-992
Arji, I. and K. Arzani. (1998). The effect of different irrigation amount on vegetative growth of two young olive cultivars. M.Sc. Thesis of Horticulture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. [In Farsi]
Arji, I. and K. Arzani. (2003). The effect of drought stress on morphological, physiological and biochemical traits of some olive cultivars. Ph.D. Thesis of Horticulture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran. [In Farsi]
Arji, I., Zeinanloo, A. A., Hajiamiri, A. and Najafi, M. (2013). Evaluation on different olive cultivars responses to Sarpole Zehab environmental condition. Journal of Plant Production (Scientific Journal of Agriculture), 35(4), 17-27. [In Farsi]
Bacelar, A. E., Santos, D. L., Moutinho-Pereira, J. M., Goncalves, B. C., Ferreira, H. F. and Correia, C. M. (2009). Immediate responses and adaptive strategies of three Olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes: Changes on structure and chemical composition of foliage and oxidative damage. Plant Science, 170(3), 596-605.
Basile B., Marsal, J. and DeJong, T. M. (2003). Daily shoot extension growth of peach trees growing on rootsstocks that reduce scion growth is related to daily dinamics of stem water potential. Tree Physiology, 23(10), 695-704.
Ben Ahmed, C., Ben Rouina, B., Sensoy, S., Boukhris, M. and Ben Abdallah, F. (2009) .Changes in gas exchange, proline accumulation and antioxidative enzyme activities in three olive cultivars under contrasting water availability regimes. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 67(2), 345-352.
Bosabalidis, A. M. and Kofidis, G. (2002). Comparative effects of drought stress on leaf anatomy of two olive cultivars. Plant Science, 163(2), 375-379.
Boughalleb, F. and Mhamdi, M. (2011).Possible involvement of proline and the antioxidant defense systems in drought tolerance of three olive cultivars grown under increasing water deficit regimes. Agricultural Journal, 6(6), 371-391.
Boussadia, O, Mariem, F. B. and Mechri, B. (2008). Response to drought of two olive tree cultivars (cv Koroneki and Meski). Scientia Horticulturae, 116(4), 388-93.
Chaves, M. M., Maroco, J. P. and Pereira, J. S. (2003). Understanding plant responses to drought: From genes to the whole plant. Functional Plant Biology, 30(3), 239-264.
Connor, D. J. (2005). Adaptation of olive (Olea europaea  L.) to water environments. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 56(11), 1181-1189.
Dere, S., Gunes, T. and Sivaci, R. (1998) .Spectrophotometric determination of chlorophyll a, b and total carotenoid contents of some algae species using different solvents. Turkish Journal of Botany, 22, 3-17.
Dichio, B., Xiloyannis, C., Sofo, A. and Montanaro, G. (2005). Osmotic regulation in leaves and roots of olive trees during a water deficit and rewatering. Tree Physiology, 26(2), 179-185.
Doorenbos J. and Pruitt W. O. (1997). Crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and Drainage, Paper 24, FAO, Rome.
Doupis, G., Bertaki, M., Psarras, G., Kasapakis, I. and Chartzoulakis, K. (2013).Water relations, physiological behavior and antioxidant defence mechanism of olive plants subjected to different irrigation regimes. Scientia Horticulturae, 153, 150-156.
Ennajeh, M., T. Tounekti, A.M. Vadel, H. Khemira and H. Cochard. (2008). Water relations and drought-induced embolism in two olive (Olea europaea L.) varieties ‘Meski’ and ‘Chemlali’ under severe drought conditions. Tree Physiology, 28(6), 971-976.
Ennajeh, M., Vadel, A. M. and Khemira, H. (2009). Osmoregulation and osmoprotection in the leaf cells of two olive cultivars subjected to severe water deficit. Acta Physiologia Plantarum, 31(4), 711-721.
Ennajeh, M., Vadel, A. M., Khemira, H., Ben Mimoun, M. and Hellali, R. (2006). Defense mechanisms against water deficit in two olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars ‘Meski’and ‘Chemlali’. Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology, 81(1), 99-104.
Fernandez, J. E., Moreno, F., Cabrera, F., Arrue, J. L. and Martin-Aranda, J. (1991). Drip irrigation, soil characteristics and the root distribution and root activity of olive trees. Plant and Soil, 133(2), 239-251.
Gholami, R. (2016). Effects of deficit irrigation on some physiological, biochemical, morphological properties and yield in six olive commercial cultivars. Ph.D. Thesis of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan. [In Farsi]
Gholami, R., Arzani, K. and Arji, I. (2004). Effect of different irrigation amounts on vegetative growth of young potted olive (Olea europaea L.) cv. Manzanillo. 5th International Symposium on Olive Growing, 27 September-2 October, Izmir, Turkiye.
Girona, J., Luna, M., Arbones, A., Mata, M., Rufat, J. and Marsal, J. (2000). Young olive trees cv. Arbequina response to different water supplies. Water function determination. Acta Horticulture, 586, 277-280.
Gucci, R., Lombardini, L. and Tattini, M. (1997). Analysis of leaf water relations in leaves of two olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars differing in tolerance to salinity. Tree Physiology, 17(1), 13-21.
Guerfel, M., Baccouri, O., Boujnah, D., Chaibi, W. and Zarrouk, M. (2009) .Impacts of water stress on gas exchange, water relations, chlorophyll content and leaf structure in the two main Tunisian olive (olea europaea L.) cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae, 119(3), 257-263.
Higgs, K. H. and Jones, H. G. (1990). Response of apple rootstocks to irrigation in south-east England. Journal of Horticultural Science, 65(2), 129-141.
Jiang, Y. and Hung, B. (2001). Drought and heat stress injury to two cool-season turfgrasses in relation to antioxidant metabolism and lipid peroxidation. Crop Science, 41(2), 436-442.
Korkmaz, A. M. U. and Demirkiran, A. R. (2007) .Acetyl salicylic acid alleviates chilling-induced damage in muskmelon plants. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 87(3), 581-585.
Loumou, A. and Giourga, C. (2003). Olive groves: The life and identity of the Mediterranean. Agriculture and Human Values, 20(1), 87-95.
Marchi, S., Tognetti, R., Minnocci, A., Borghi, M. and Sebastiani, L. (2008). Variation in mesophyll anatomy and photosynthetic capacity during leaf development in a deciduous mesophyte fruit tree (Prunus persica) and an evergreen sclerophyllous Mediterranean shrub. Trees, 22(4), 559-571.
Michelakis, N., Vouyoukalou, E. and Clapaki, G. (1995). Plant growth and yield response of the olive tree cv. Kalamon, for different levels of soil water potential and methods of irrigation. Horticultural Science, 9(3), 136-139.
Nardini, A. and Salleo, S. (2005). Water stress-induced modifications of leaf hydraulic architecture in sunflower: co-ordination with gas exchange. Journal of Experimental Botany, 56(422), 3093-3101.
Nuzzo, V., Xiloyannis, C., Dichio, B., Montonaro, G. and Celano, G. (1997). Growth and yield in irrigated and non irrigated olive trees cv. Coratina. Acta Horticulturae, 449, 74-82.
Petridis, A., Therios, I., Samouris, G., Koundouras, S. and Giannakoula, A. (2012). Effect of water deficit on leaf phenolic composition, gas exchange, oxidative damage and antioxidant activity of four Greek olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 60, 1-11.

Rosecrance, R. C., Krueger, W. H., Milliron, L., Bloese, J., Garcia, C. and Mori, B. (2015). Moderate regulated deficit irrigation can increase olive oil yields and decrease tree growth in super high density Arbequina olive orchards. Scientia Horticulturae, 190(16), 75-82.

Stewart, R. R. C. and Bewley, J. D. (1980) .Lipid peroxidation ­associated with accelerated aging of soybean axes. Plant Physiology, 65(2), 245-248.
Talaei, A. and Shirzad, H. (2000). Effects of water stress on growth indices and plant water relations in young plants olives. Acta Horticulture. Proceeding of 2th Iranian Horticultural Sciences Congress, Karaj. [In Farsi]
Tovar, M. J., Romero, M. P., Girona, J. and Motilva, M. J. (2002). L-Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity and concentration of phenolics in developing olive (Olea europaea L. cv Arbequina) fruit grown under different irrigation regimes. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 82(8), 892-898.