اثر تنش آبی بر برخی ویژگی‌های رشدی و فیزیولوژیکی ژنوتیپ‌های برتر زیتون (Olea europaea L.) در شرایط گلدان

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کرمانشاه، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 کارشناس ارشد حشره‌شناسی، فروشگاه توزیع نهادهای کشاورزی سرپل‌ذهاب، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
این پژوهش به منظور ‌بررسی اثر تنش آبی بر ویژگی‌های رشدی و فیزیولوژیکی هفت ژنوتیپ بومی برتر زیتون در ایستگاه تحقیقات زیتون دالاهو واقع در استان کرمانشاه در سال زراعی 94-93 اجرا گردید. ژنوتیپ‌های بومی برتر زیتونD1، Dd1، GW،Ps1 ،Bn3،Bn6 و Ds17 درآزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار تحت چهار تیمار آبیاری قرار گرفتند. تیمارهای آبیاری شامل آبیاری به میزان 100 درصد آبیاری (شاهد)، 80، 60 و 50 درصد تبخیر و تعرق بودند، به‌طوری‌که تیمار 100 درصد به‌عنوان شاهد در نظر گرفته شد. به‌ منظور تعیین پاسخ ژنوتیپ‌ها به تنش خشکی صفات رویشی مانند ارتفاع، تعداد برگ، وزن تر و خشک برگ، وزن تر و خشک شاخه و ریشه، نسبت وزن خشک ریشه به شاخه و نیز صفات فیزیولوژیکی محتوای نسبی آب برگ، درصد نشت یونی، مقدار کلروفیل کل و مالون‌دی‌آلدهید ثبت گردید. عملیات آماری تجزیه واریانس و مقایسه میانگین‌ها به روش دانکن انجام گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که ژنوتیپ Bn3 بیشترین ارتفاع و ژنوتیپD1 کمترین ارتفاع را داشت. ژنوتیپ Bn3 بیشترین تعداد برگ را داشته اگر چهژنوتیپ‌های D1،Dd1 و ژنوتیپ Gw در یک کلاس قرار گرفتند اما از نظر مقدارکمترین تعداد برگ مربوط به ژنوتیپ D1 بود. بین ژنوتیپ‌ها از لحاظ وزن تر و خشک برگ تفاوت معنی‌داری وجود داشت به‌طوری‌که بیشترین وزن تر و خشک برگ مربوط به ژنوتیپ Bn3 و کمترین وزن تر و خشک برگ مربوط به ژنوتیپ D1 بود. بین ژنوتیپ‌ها از لحاظ وزن تر و خشک شاخه و ریشه و نیز نسبت وزن خشک ریشه به شاخهتفاوت معنی‌داری وجود داشت به‌طوری‌که بیشترین وزن تر و خشک شاخه مربوط به ژنوتیپ Ds17 و کمترین وزن ‌تر و خشک ریشه مربوط به ژنوتیپ Gw بود. ژنوتیپ‌های  Bn3و Dd1 بیشترین نسبت وزن خشک ریشه به شاخه را داشتند و کمترین نسبت مربوط به ژنوتیپ Bn6 بود. از نظر صفات فیزیولوژیکی ژنوتیپ Bn3 و Ds17 دارای بیشترین مقدار درصد محتوای نسبی آب برگ و میزان کلروفیلکل بودند. میزان درصد نشت یونی و مالون‌دی‌آلدهید در ژنوتیپ Bn3 و Ds17 کمترین مقدار بود. بنابرین این دو ژنوتیپ به‌عنوان ژنوتیپ‌های مقاوم به خشکی معرفی می‌گردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Drought Stress on Some Vegetative and Physiological Characteristics of Superior Local Olive Genotypes (Olea europaea L.) in Pot Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahmatollah Gholami 1
  • Hojatollah Gholami 2
1 Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Scinence Research Department, Kermanshah Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Master of Entomology, Distribution of Agricultural Institutions in Srple-Zhab
چکیده [English]

Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the every green trees that tolerance to Drought. Olive is an economically important species of the Mediterranean area, so understanding the mechanisms by which olive plants face drought stress under environmental conditions is essential for the improvement of olive yield and oil quality. Drought is one of the most important environmental stresses that affect plant growth and development negatively. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of drought stress on some morphological characteristics of some superior local olive genotypes in pot condition was conducted in Dallaho Olive Research Station (geographical characters was longitude of 45˚, 51΄ E and latitude of 34˚, 30΄ N and the height of sea level 581m) located in Kermanshah province. In order to select drought resistant or tolerant local olive genotypes an experiment in pot conditions was conducted. Seven olive genotypes (D1, Dd1, GW, Ps1, Bn3, Bn6 and Ds17) used as plant materials. Pot experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications and two factors (irrigation regimes and genotypes) was conducted in 2015. Irrigation Ttreatment were including of 100% (control), 80%, 60% and 50% of evapotranspiration respectively. Some vegetative characteristics such as plant height, trunk diameter, leaf number, leaf, shoot, and root fresh and dry weight were recorded. Collected data were analyzed with MSTATC program. Obtained results showed that Bn3 genotype had the highest height and D1 had the lowest height. Bn3 genotype had the highest number of leaf and D1 had the lowest but D1, Dd1 and Gw were in a statistic class. Genotypes showed significant differences in leaf fresh and dry weight so that Bn3 genotype had the highest leaf fresh and dry weight and D1 had the lowest. Genotypes indicated significant differences in pot in shoot and root fresh and dry weight so that Ds17 genotype had the lowest shoot fresh and dry weight and Gw had the lowest root fresh and dry weight. and Bn6 had the lowest root dry weight/ shoot dry weight ratio. irrigation treatments significant differences in recorded vegetative and physiological characteristics so that 100 percent irrigation treatment increase relative water content percent (RWC), total chlorophyll. among olive genotypes Bn3 and Ds17 had the highest, relative water content percent (RWC), total chlorophyll and mda less produced. The results indicated that olive genotypes had different resistance to drought and vegetative growth status of Bn3 and Ds17 genotypes were better in drought stress conditions. It can be concluded that Bn3 and Ds17 genotype had the relatively high resistance to drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • Genotypes
  • Olive
  • Physiological characteristics
  • Vegetative growth
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