ارزیابی تیمارهای مختلف بر بهبود جوانه‌زنی بذر زنبق نمکزار

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری علوم باغبانی و فضای سبز، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استاد، گروه علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

4 استادیار، پژوهشکده علوم گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

چکیده

زنبق نمکزار (Iris spuria subsp. Musulmanica) گیاهی است بومی، که به‌‌عنوان گیاه زینتی ارزشمند، که می‌تواند به‌ صورت گل شاخه بریده و در فضای سبز مورد استفاده قرار گیرد. بذر زنبق نمکزار در شرایط طبیعی دارای جوانه‌زنی پایینی است، به همین دلیل آزمایشی در جهت بهبود جوانه‌زنی آن انجام گردید. آزمایش در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 10 تیمار، چهار تکرار (هر تکرار شامل 25 بذر) در سال 1395 و از رویشگاه طبیعی زنبق نمکزار واقع در شهرستان بجنورد اجرا گردید. تیمارها شامل: هیدروکسید سدیم 20 مولار به مدت 10 دقیقه، هیدروکسید سدیم 15 مولار به مدت 20 دقیقه، آب 100 درجه سانتی‌گراد به مدت 10 دقیقه، آب 80 درجه سانتی‌گراد به مدت 15 دقیقه، اسید سولفوریک 98 درصد به مدت 10 دقیقه، اسید سولفوریک 98 درصد به مدت 15 دقیقه، چینه سرمایی به مدت 30 روز، چینه سرمایی به مدت 60 روز، چینه سرمایی به مدت 90 روز و تیمار شاهد بودند. تأثیر تیمارهای منتخب بر همه پارامترهای جوانه‌زنی معنی‌دار بود (05/0>p). پیش تیمار بذرها در محلول هیدروکسید سدیم با غلظت 20 مولار به مدت 10 دقیقه نسبت به بقیه تیمارها، منجر به افزایش بیشتر در پارامترهایی درصد جوانه‌زنی، سرعت جوانه‌زنی، شاخص بنیه بذور، طول ساقه‌چه و ریشه‌چه، وزن ‌تر و خشک ریشه‌چه و ساقه‌چه گردید. در سه سطح چینه سرمایی جوانه‌زنی کمتری نسبت به شاهد بدون تیمار مشاهده شد. هم‌چنین تیمار اسید سولفوریک 10 دقیقه به‌طور نسبی موجب بهبود در جوانه‌زنی و سایر پارامترهای جوانه‌زنی نسبت به شاهد بدون تیمار گردید. هیدروکسید سدیم به واسطه فعالیت قلیایی و حل ترکیبات چربی دوست موجود در پوشش‌های بیرونی و درونی بذر زنبق نمکزار به‌طور مؤثرتری موجب بهبود جوانه‌زنی گردید. احتمالاً در این گونه زنبق نیز به مانند بسیاری از گونه‌‌های زنبق خواب مورفوفیزیولوژیکی وجود دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Different Treatments to Improve Germination of Iris Spuria Subsp. Musulmanica

نویسندگان [English]

  • M. Salehi 1
  • M. Shoor 2
  • A. Tehranifar 3
  • L. Samiei 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Horticultural Science and Landscape, Department of Horticultural Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Horticultural Science and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Horticultural Science and Landscape, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural Science and Landscape, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Iris spuria subsp. Musulmanica is a rhizomatous herb growing as wild in Iran, Turkey and, Caucasia. This species is important from ornamental and medicinal perspective and could be used as flowering pot plant, cut flower and landscape plant. A few of Iris seeds germinate under natural conditions. Therefore, an experiment was designed to improve germination of Iris seeds using different treatments that could be accessible for floriculture purpose.
Materials and Methods
This experiment was carried out based on completely randomized design with 10 treatments and 4 replications (each replication contains 25 seeds). Treatments were control without treatment, priming in hydroxide sodium 20M for 10 minutes, priming in sodium hydroxide 15M for 20 minutes, W100-10: in water 100°C for 10 minutes, W80-15: in water 80°C for 15 minutes, priming in sulfuric acid 98% for 10 minutes, priming in sulfuric acid 98% for 15 minutes, stratification for 30 days, stratification for 60 days, and stratification for 90 days. For all treatments, germination variables including germination, germination rate, mean germination time, seed vigor index, mean germination daily, shoot length, root length, shoot fresh weight, root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight were measured.
Results
Treatment effect on germination variables was significant (p<0.05). The results improvement of that treating seeds with 20 mM of hydroxide sodium solution for 10 minutes led to improve the seed germination parameters like germination percentage, germination rate, seed vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh and dry weight of root and shoot compared to control. In three levels of stratification treatments, germination percentages were less than control treatment. Also, the results showed that treating seeds with sulfuric acid for 10 minutes improved as partially seed germination and other germination variables in comparison with control treatment.
Discussion
Previous studies revealed that the seed coating played an important role in seed dormancy of Iris species. In this study, scarification treatment with hydroxide sodium resulted in increased germination which may correspond to the reduced seed mechanical inhibitory and the improvement in gas and water exchange. Moreover, sodium hydroxide solution facilitated the seed germination via the elimination of seed coat and increasing the seed capsule Intercellular space which finally promoted the exchange of materials between seed and its surrounded environment. Like too many Iris species, a non-deep morphophysiological mechanism may play the most important role in dormancy of I. spuria subsp. Musulmanica.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Non-deep morphophysiological dormancy
  • Scarification
  • Sodium hydroxide
  • stratification
  • Sulfuric acid
References
Bandino, G., Sedda, P. and Mulas, M. (1997). Germination of olive seeds as affected by chemical scarification, hot water dip, and gibberellic acid treatments. Acta horticulturae 474, 35-38.
Baskin C. C. and Baskin J. M. (2014). Seeds: Ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination (2nd ed.). San Diego: Elsevier/Academic Publication.
Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. (1984). Germination Physiology of an eastern deciduous forest herb Stylophorum diphyllum. The American Midland Naturalist, 11(2), 390-399.
Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. (2003). New approaches to the study of the evolution of physical and physiological dormancy, the two most common classes of seed dormancy on earth. In: The biology of seeds research advances (pp. 371-380). Wallingford, United Kingdom: CAB International.
Bench-Arnold, R. L. and Sanchez, R. A. (2004). Hand book of seed physiology application to agriculture. New York: Food Products Publication, Inc.
Blumenthal, A., Lerner, H. R., Werker, E. and Alexandra, P. M. (1986). Germination preventing mechanisms in iris seeds. Annals of Botany 58(4), 551-561.
Copeland, L. O. and McDonald, M. B. (1995). Principles of seed science and technology. (3rd ed.). New York, USA: Chapman and Hall.
Farahmand, H. and Nazari, F. (2015). Environmental and anthropogenic pressures on geophytes of Iran and the possible protection strategies: A review. International Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, 2(2), 111-132.
Foley, M. E. (2001). Seed dormancy: An update on terminology, physiological, genetics, and quantitative trait loci regulating germ inability. Weed Science, 49(3), 305-317.
He, X. Q., Hu, X. W. and Wang, Y. R. (2010). Study on seed dormancy mechanism and breaking technique of Leymus chinensis. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 30(1), 120-125.
Hu, X. W., Wu, Y. P., Ding, X. Y., Zhang, R., Wang, Y. R, Baskin, J. M. and Baskin, C. C. (2014). Seed dormancy seedling establishment and dynamics of the soil seed bank of Stipa bungeana (Poaceae) on the loess plateau of Northwestern China. PLOS ONE, 9(11), e112579.
Jangjoo, M. B. and Tavakoli, M. (2009). Study of Seed germination 10 plant of species desert and grassland. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 15(2), 215-226. [In Farsi]
Karam, N. S. and Al-Salem, M. M. (2001). Breaking dormancy in Arbutus andrachne L. seeds by stratification and gibberelic acid. Seed Science and Technology, 29(1), 51-56.
Khoshkhoy, M. (2010). Increasing plant (plant propagation): Principles and methods (1-2 ed.). Shiraz: Shiraz University Publications. [In Farsi]
Kulkarni, M. G. Street, R. A. and Staden, J. V. (2007). Germination and seedling growth requirements for propagation of Diosscorea dregeana (Kunth) Dur.and Schinz-A tuberous medicinal plant. South African Journal of Botany, 73(1), 131-137.
Lee, E. and Jeachul, K. (2002). Improvement of seed germination in native Iris sanguinea Donn ex Horn. (In Korean). Korean Journal Horticultural Science Technology, 20(4), 341-351.
Lee, Y. L., Lu, C. F., Chung, C. and Lee, N. (2007). Developmental changes in endogenous Abscisic acid concentrations and A symbiotic seed germination of a terrestrial orchid, Calanthe tricarinata Lindl. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 132(2), 246-252.
Lining, F., Qingfeng, Li., Shujun, Li. and Jun, Xu. (1998). Some Methods for Stimulating Germination of carex seeds. Pratacultural Science, 4(5), 561-568.
Liu, G., Li, Y., Hedgepeth, M., Wan, Y. and Roberts, R. E. (2009). Seed germination enhancement for bald cypress (Taxodium distichum L. Rich.). Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, 1(2), 22-26.
Okeyo, M. M., Ochoudho, J. O., Muasya, R. M. and. Omondi, W. O. (2011). Investigation on the germination of Zanthoxylum gilletii (African Satinwood) seed. In A. Bationo, B. Waswa, J. Okeyo, F. Maina, J., Kihara (Eds.), Innovations as Key to the Green Revolution in Africa (pp: 683-691). Dordrecht: Springer.
Panwar, P. and Bhardwaj, S. D. (2005). Handbook of practical forestry: A Practical Guide for Tropical Forest Managers on Implementing New Standards. London: Routledge.
Rostami, A. A. and Shasavar, A. (2009). Effects of seed scarification on seed germination and early growth of olive seedlings. Journal of Biological Sciences, 9(8), 825-828.
Sheikh, A. H. and Abdul, M. M. D. (2007). Seed morphology and germination studies of Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. at nursery stage in Bangladesh. Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 3(1), 35-39.
Sun, Y. C., Zhang, Y. J., Wang, K. and Qiu. X. J. (2006). NaOH scarification and stratification improve germination of Iris lactea var. Chinensis seed. Horticultural Sciences, 41(3), 773-774.
Wang, F., Zhu, Li., Zhao, M., Kang, J. and Danhui, B. (2013). Effect of different treatments on seed germination of Carex brunnescens. Journal of Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 29(1), 36-39.
Wei, W. (2010). Effects off NaOH treatment on germination and physiological characteristic of Zoysia japonica Seeds. Seed Journal, 1(3), 5-23.
Wendelbo, P. (1977). Tulips and irises of Iran and their relatives. Tehran: Botanical institute of Iran, Ariamehr Botanical Garden.
Xu, B. M., Zang, J. Z. and Long, Y. Y. (1990). A preliminary discussion on the laboratory germination of eight species seeds of wild flowers (in Chinese). Seed Journal, 6, 1-5.
Zarska-Maciejewskanal, B. and Lewak, T. (1976). The role of lipases in the removal of dormancy in apple seeds. Planta, 132(2), 177-181.
Zhang, G., Yanfang, L. I. and Tianming, H. U. (2010). Effects of sodium hydroxide and cold stratifying treatments on germination of Kobresia seeds. Acta Agriculturae Boreali-Occidentalis Sinica, 12, 19-32.