بررسی تأثیر کاربرد سطوح مختلف کود آلی و اوره بر تجمع نیترات و برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک اسفناج

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی، گروه گیاهان دارویی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

استفاده از روش‌هایی که موجب کاهش تجمع نیترات در سبزی‌های برگی شود و همچنین ارزش غذایی آن‌ها را حفظ نماید حائز اهمیت می‌باشد. به‌‌منظور بررسی تأثیر سطوح مختلف (صفر، 10، 20 و 30 درصد حجمی) کودهای آلی (دامی، ورمی‌کمپوست و مرغی) و کود اوره (102، 204 و 306 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بر تجمع نیترات و برخی خصوصیات رشدی و فیزیولوژیک اسفناج آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان در سال 1395 اجرا شد. نتایج نشان داد بالاترین مقادیر نیترات در زمان‌های صبح و عصر در تیمار 306 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود اوره مشاهده شد. طول برگ تحت تأثیر تیمارهای 20 و 30 درصد کود مرغی قرار گرفت. بیشترین میزان قند محلول و وزن ‌تر و خشک ریشه در تیمارهای 10 و 20 درصد کود دامی مشاهده شد. تیمارهای 20 و 30 درصد کود ورمی‌کمپوست و کود دامی و تیمار 30 درصد کود مرغی موجب افزایش وزن تر و خشک برگ شد. تمامی سطوح کودهای ورمی‌کمپوست، دامی و مرغی موجب افزایش محتوای پتاسیم شد. بیشترین میزان آهن، روی و محتوای فنل کل نمونه‌ها در تمامی سطوح کود دامی و ورمی‌کمپوست ملاحظه گردید.  با توجه به پاسخ مثبت گیاه اسفناج به کاربرد کودهای آلی به نظر می‌آید که کاربرد این کودها ضمن کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی و کاهش اثرات سوء زیست‌محیطی آن‌ها، روش مناسبی برای تولید سالم و پایدار سبزی‌ها باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Urea and Organic Fertilizers on Nitrate Accumulation and Some Physiological Traits of Spinach (Spinacia oleraceae)

نویسندگان [English]

  • L. Vojodi Mehrabani 1
  • R. Valizadeh Kamran 2
  • Z. Soltanighralar 3
  • Z. Emanizeraatcar 3
  • Z. Masoumpoor 3
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
3 Undergraduate Student, Department of Plant Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Management of organic fertilizers utilization is of the main components of organic crops production which can greatly affect the yield and quality of plants. Due to the short time course of leafy vegetables production, farmers commonly use nitrogenous chemical fertilizers for the nourishment of plants. The results are huge nitrate accumulation on the edible parts of the vegetables and hence the deteriorating health side effects. So, owing to the necessity of vegetables in the daily diet, resorting to the production methods to reduce the nitrate accumulation and even preserve and add up the nutritious quality of vegetables is of great interest.
Materials and Methods
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of deferent levels of cow, vermicompost and poultry organic fertilizers (0, 10, 20 and 30% in volume) and urea (102, 204 and 306 g Kg/ha) on nitrate accumulation (morning and evening sampling time) and Fe2+, Zn2+ and potassium concentration and total phenolic content as well as on some growth characteristics of spinach as RBCD design with three replications in Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University during 2016.
Results
The results revealed that the highest morning nitrate accumulation (2435 mg Kg-1 Fwt) and that of evening (2052 mg Kg-1 Fwt) belonged to 306 kg/ha urea treatment. Leaf length was effected by 20% (3.6 cm) and 30% (8.8 cm) of poultry manure. The highest data for TSS and root fresh and dry weight were attained by 10 and 20% of cow manure. The treatments, 20 and 30% of vermicompost, cow manure and 30% poultry manure increased the leaves fresh and dry weight. All levels of poultry and vermicompost manure had positive effects on potassium content. The highest amounts of Fe2+, Zn2+ and total phenolic content were recorded in 10, 20 and 30% cow manure and vermicompost manure
Discussion
Nitrate accumulation in vegetables is dependent upon several intrinsic and extrinsic factors of which, mineral nutrition is of crucial importance. Considering the positive response of spinach to the application of organic fertilizers, it seems that using these organic fertilizers would greatly decline the chemical fertilizers input as well as reduces the environmental side effects of chemicals and virtually goes to the production of safe organic products under sustainable production systems.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Elements
  • Fresh weight
  • Spinacia Oleraceae
  • Total phenolics compound
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