Background and Objectives
Olive (Olea europaea L.) belongs to Oleaceae family. Olive fruit has been used for oil and table olive. Olive is one of the most important fruit trees around the world. Iran is one of the regions of the world with different wild olive genotypes distributed in different provinces. Olive genotypes are important genetic resources for Iran. These genotypes can be selected as promising genotypes and used in breeding programs. The objective of this study was to evaluate adaptability of 8 olive genotypes from Gorgan and Taroum.
Materials and Methods
This experiment was conducted to evaluate adaptation ability of 8 olive genotypes in Tarrom olive research station during 2007- 2011. Trees were planted under a complete randomized block design with a 6 × 6 distance. Vegetative and reproductive characters of olive trees were measured. The collected data were analyzed with MSTATC and the means were compared with Duncan's multiple test.
Vegetative results showed that tree height, wide, shoot season growth and trunk cross sectional areas were significantly different at 1% between olive genotypes in Tarrom olive station. Inflorescence number per shoot, flower number per inflorescence, perfect flower percent, and final fruit set were significantly different at 1% statistical level. Fruit weight was significant between olive genotypes and it varied between 2.3 and 9.8g. G4 genotype had the biggest fruit and flesh weight. Fruit yields were significant between genotypes so that T2 and B1 had the highest and lowest yields respectively. The oil percent in dry matter was significantly different between genotypes. All genotypes had higher than 40% oil in dry matter. The highest oil percentage (52%) was recorded in G4 genotype. Generally, G4 olive genotype could be a promising genotype due to the large fruit (more than 9 grams), relatively high yield (about one ton) and high oil content (more than 52% of the dry matter).
Wild olive genotypes are very important gene pole for any purposes in each county. Iran has different wild olive genotypes in different regions like Golestan, Gilan, Kerman, Kermanshah, Ilam and so on. Identification and evaluation of adaptability of local olive genotypes are very important for new olive cultivar selection and breeding programs. As mentioned above, the evaluated olive genotypes show different responses in Taroum olive research station. Different vegetative and reproductive characteristics were recorded on evaluated olive genotypes. Generally, results showed that G4 olive genotype was superior based on fruit traits, oil and yield.