Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture and Extension Education, Shahid Bakeri High Education Center of Miandoab, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Medicinal Plants, Shahid Bakeri High Education Center of Miandoab, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Background and Objectives
Drought stress is one of the main limiting factors in plant production in semiarid regions; this is due to its oxidative stress.
Materials and Methods
For evaluation of drought stress after pollination on some agronomic physiological factors in flag leaf and spikes of different wheat genotypes this study was designed as Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates in Maragheh dryland research center in 2016. The first factor contains two levels of irrigation, control and drought stress (irrigation cut after pollination until the end of growth period) and the second factor contains different wheat genotypes (PTZ and TRK: tolerant, Manning and Sabalan: semi tolerant, Saratoves and RINA-11: sensitive).
Drought stress decreased grain yield. Manning semi tolerant and Saratoves sensitive genotypes showed the highest and lowest grain yield. The activities of enzymatic (ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non- enzymatic (glutathione and ascorbate) antioxidants increased under drought stress. The highest and lowest ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity was observed in flag leaf of TRK and Saratoves genotypes and in spikes of Manning and Saratoves genotypes. Also flag leaf and spikes of Manning and Saratoves genotypes showed the highest and lowest glutathione reductase enzyme activity. The highest glutathione and ascorbate content in flag leaf and spikes was related to TRK and Manning genotypes; the lowest content was observed in Saratoves.
It seems that in spikes of Manning genotype, activation of enzymatic (ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione and ascorbate) antioxidants had a key role in increase of tolerance to drought stress.


Main Subjects

Abdoli, M. and Saeidi, M. (2013). Evaluation of water deficiency at the post anthesis and source limitation during grain filling on grain yield, yield formation, some morphological and phonological traits and gas exchange of bread wheat cultivar. Albanian Journal of Agricultural Science, 12(2), 255-265.
Abdul Jaleel, C., Riadh, K., Gopi, R., Manivannan, P., Ines, J., Al-Juburi, H. G., Chang-Xing, Z., Hong-Bo, Z. and Panneerselvam, R. (2009). Antioxidant defense responses: Physiological plasticity in higher plants under abiotic constrains. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 31(3), 427-436.
Asada, K. (1999). The water-water cycle in chloroplasts: Scavenging of active oxygens and dissipation of excess photons. Annual Review of Plant Physiology, 50(1), 601-639.
Asada, K. (2000). The water-water cycle as alternative photon and electron sinks. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 355(1402), 1419-143.
Behboodi, S., Ahmadi, J., Shanjat, A. and Haddad, R. (2010). Study protein profiles of wheat during germination under abiotic non-stress conditions. M.Sc. Thesis, Imam Khomeini International University, Ghazvin.
Blum, A. and Ebercon, A. (1976). Genotypic responses in sorghum to drought stress. III. Free proline accumulation and drought resistance. Crop Science, 16(3), 428-431.
Bradford, M. M. (1976). A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72(1-2), 248-254.
Cruz De Carvalho, M. H. (2008). Drought stress and reactive oxygen species. Plant Signaling and Behavior, 3(3), 156-165.
Dalvandi, G., Ghanbari-odivi, A., Farnia, B., Khaliltahmasebi, B. and Nabati, E. (2013). Effects of drought stress on the growth, yield and yield components of four wheat populations in different growth stages. Advances in Environmental Biology, 7(4), 619-624.
Dalton, D. A., Russell, S. A., Hanus, F. J., Pascoe, G. A., and Evans, H. J. (1986). Enzymatic reactions of ascorbate and glutathione that prevent peroxide damage in soybean root nodules. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United State of America, 83(11), 3811-3815.
Ehdaie, B., Alloush, G. A., Madore, M. A. and Wanies, J. G. (2006). Genotypic variation for stem reserves and mobilization in wheat. I: post anthesis changes in internode dry matter. Crop Science, 46(2), 735-746.
Gapinska, M., Sklodowska, M. and Gabara, B. (2008). Effect of short and long-term salinity on the activities of antioxidative enzymes and lipid peroxidation in tomato roots. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 30(1), 11-18.
Gill, S. S. and Tuteja, N. (2010). Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry Journal, 48(12), 909-930.
Griffith, O. W. and Meister, A. (1979). Potent and specific inhibition of glutathione synthesis by buthionine sulfoximine (S-n-butylhomocysteine sulfoximine). Journal of Biological Chemistry, 254(16), 7558-7560.
Han, H. S. and Lee, K. D. (2005). Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria effect on antioxidant status, photosynthesis, mineral uptake and growth of Lettuce under soil salinity. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 1(3), 210-215.
Herbinger, K., Tausz, M., Wonisch, A., Soja, G., Sorger, A. and Grill, D. (2002). Complex interactive effects of drought and ozone stress on the antioxidant defence systems of two wheat cultivars. Plant Physiology Biochemistry, 40(6-8), 691-696.
Izabela, M., Ilona, C. M., Edyta, S., Maria, F., Stanisław, G. and Maciej, T. G. (2013). Impact of osmotic stress on physiological and biochemical characteristics in drought susceptible and drought-resistant wheat genotypes. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35(2), 451-461.
Jithesh, M. N., Prashanth, S. R., Sivaprakash, K. R. and Parida, A. K. (2006). Antioxidative response mechanisms in halophytes: Their role in stress defense. Journal of Genetics, 85(3), 237-254.
Mittler, R. (2002). Oxidative stress, antioxidants and stress tolerance. Trends in Plant Science, 7(9), 405-410.
Nakano, Y. and Asada, K. (1981). Hydrogen peroxide is scavenged by ascorbate-specific peroxidase in spinach chloroplast. Plant Cell Physiology, 22(5), 867-880.
Saeidi, M., Moradi, F., Ahmadi, A., Spehri, R., Najafian, G. and Shabani, A. (2010). The effects of terminal water stress on physiological characteristics and sink-source relations in two bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Iranian Journal of Crop Science, 12(4), 392-408. [In Farsi]
Sadegh zadeh Ahari, D., Hossaini, K. and Alizadeh, K. (1996). Study of adaptability and stability of durum wheat lines in tropical and sub-tropical dry land areas. Seed and Plant, 21(4), 561-576. [In Farsi]
Sairam, R. K., Rao, K. V. and Srivastava, G. C. (2003). Differential response of wheat genotypes to long term salinity stress in relation to oxidative stress, antioxidant activity and osmolyte concentration. Plant Science, 163(5), 1037-1046.
Sanker. B. C., Jaleel, A., Manivannan, P., Kishorekumar, A., Somasundaram R. and Panneerselvam, R. (2007). Effect of paclobutrazol on water stress amelioration through antioxidants and free radical scavenging enzymes in Arachis hypogaea L. Colloids and Surface B: Biointerfaces, 60(2), 229-235.
Sharma, P., Jha, A. B., Dubey, R. S. and Pessarakli, M. (2012). Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidative defense mechanism in plants under stressful conditions. Journal of Botany, 2013, e217037.
Smirnoff, N. (1993). The role of active oxygen in response of plants to water deficit and desiccation. New Phytology, 125(1), 27-58.
Smirnoff, N. (2000). Ascorbic acid: Metabolism and functions of a multi-facetted molecule. Current Opinion Plant Biology, 3(3), 229-235.
Stewart, C. R. (1980). The mechanism of abscisic acid-induced proline accumulation in barley leaves. Plant Physiology, 66(2), 230-233.
Verma, K. K., Singh, M., Gupta, R. K. and Verma, C. L. (2014). Photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, antioxidant enzymes and growth responses of Jatropha curcas during soil flooding. Turkish Journal of Botany, 38(1), 130-40.
Wang, R. Y., Yu, Z. W. and Pan, Q. M. (1999).Changes of endogenous plant hormone contents during grain development in wheat. Acta Agronomica Sinica, 25(2), 227-231.
Winkel, A. (1989). Breeding for drought tolerance in cereals. Vortrage fur Pflanzenzuchtung, 16(1), 357-368.
Yang, X. D., Dong, C. J. and Liu, J. Y. (2006). A plant mitochondrial phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase: its precise localization and higher enzymatic activity. Plant Molecular Biology, 62(6), 951-962.