اثر تنش خشکی بر آنتی‌اکسیدان‌های آنزیمی و غیرآنزیمی در برگ پرچم و سنبله ژنوتیپ‌های متحمل و حساس گندم

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه ترویج و آموزش کشاورزی، مرکز آموزش عالی شهید باکری میاندوآب، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه گیاهان دارویی، مرکز آموزش عالی شهید باکری میاندوآب، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

تنش خشکی به‌عنوان یکی از عامل اصلی کاهش عملکرد گیاهان در مناطق نیمه‌خشک محسوب‌شده و منجر به تنش اکسیداتیو می‌شود. به منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی پس از گرده‌افشانی بر برخی صفات زراعی و فیزیولوژیک برگ پرچم و سنبله ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف گندم، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات دیم مراغه اجرا شد. فاکتور‌های آزمایش شامل دو سطح آبیاری؛ کنترل (آبیاری در تمام مراحل رشدی بر اساس شرایط کشت آبی) و تنش خشکی (قطع آبیاری پس از گرده‌افشانی تا پایان دوره رشد) و ژنوتیپ‌های مختلف گندم (متحمل: PTZ و TRK، نیمه‌ متحمل: Manning و Sabalan و حساس: RINA-11 و Saratoves) بود. در شرایط تنش خشکی پس از گرده‌افشانی، عملکرد دانه و وزن هزار دانه نسبت به شرایط شاهد کاهش معنی‌دار یافت. حداکثر و حداقل عملکرد دانه در این شرایط به‌ترتیب مربوط به ژنوتیپ‌های نیمه ‌متحمل Manning (97/242) و حساسSaratoves (gm-234/145) بود. بیشترین تغییرات در محتوی مالون‌دی‌آلدئید مربوط به ژنوتیپ‌های حساس بود. فعالیت آنتی‌اکسیدان‌های آنزیمی (آسکوربات پراکسیداز و گلوتاتیون ردوکتاز) و غیرآنزیمی (گلوتاتیون و آسکوربات) به ‌واسطه اعمال تنش خشکی افزایش یافت. بیشترین و کمترین فعالیت آنزیم آسکوربات پراکسیداز به‌ترتیب در برگ پرچم ژنوتیپ‌های TRK  Saratovesو در سنبله ژنوتیپ‌های Manning و Saratoves مشاهده شد. برگ پرچم و سنبله ژنوتیپ‌های Manning و Saratoves بیشترین و کمترین فعالیت آنزیم گلوتاتیون ردوکتاز را نشان دادند. بیشترین محتوی گلوتاتیون و آسکوربات در برگ پرچم و سنبله، به‌ترتیب مربوط به ژنوتیپ‌هایTRK  و Manning بود، این درحالی است که در ژنوتیپ Saratoves کمترین مقادیر مشاهده شد. به نظر می‌رسد که در سنبله ژنوتیپ Manning فعال شدن هر دو سیستم آنتی‌اکسیدانی آنزیمی (آسکوربات پراکسیداز و گلوتاتیون ردوکتاز) و غیرآنزیمی (گلوتاتیون و آسکوربات) نقش کلیدی را در افزایش تحمل به تنش خشکی داشتند و در این میان آنتی‌اکسیدان‌های غیرآنزیمی مؤثرترین نقش را ایفا کردند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Drought Stress on Enzymatic and Non- Enzymatic Antioxidants in Flag Leaf and Spikes of Tolerant and Sensitive Wheat Genotypes

نویسندگان [English]

  • P. Sharifi 1
  • N. Mohammadkhani 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture and Extension Education, Shahid Bakeri High Education Center of Miandoab, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Medicinal Plants, Shahid Bakeri High Education Center of Miandoab, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Drought stress is one of the main limiting factors in plant production in semiarid regions; this is due to its oxidative stress.
Materials and Methods
For evaluation of drought stress after pollination on some agronomic physiological factors in flag leaf and spikes of different wheat genotypes this study was designed as Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates in Maragheh dryland research center in 2016. The first factor contains two levels of irrigation, control and drought stress (irrigation cut after pollination until the end of growth period) and the second factor contains different wheat genotypes (PTZ and TRK: tolerant, Manning and Sabalan: semi tolerant, Saratoves and RINA-11: sensitive).
Results
Drought stress decreased grain yield. Manning semi tolerant and Saratoves sensitive genotypes showed the highest and lowest grain yield. The activities of enzymatic (ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non- enzymatic (glutathione and ascorbate) antioxidants increased under drought stress. The highest and lowest ascorbate peroxidase enzyme activity was observed in flag leaf of TRK and Saratoves genotypes and in spikes of Manning and Saratoves genotypes. Also flag leaf and spikes of Manning and Saratoves genotypes showed the highest and lowest glutathione reductase enzyme activity. The highest glutathione and ascorbate content in flag leaf and spikes was related to TRK and Manning genotypes; the lowest content was observed in Saratoves.
Discussion
It seems that in spikes of Manning genotype, activation of enzymatic (ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione and ascorbate) antioxidants had a key role in increase of tolerance to drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ascorbate
  • Peroxidase
  • Plant
  • Yield
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