تأثیر زئولیت بر ماده خشک ریشه و خصوصیات عملکردی گندم در خاک‌های آلوده به سلاح‌های جنگی و شیمیایی

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، پردیس علوم و تحقیقات خوزستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه خاکشناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

امروزه با توجه به اثرات نامطلوب جنگ در جهان و به کارگیری سلاح‌های نامتعارف و آلودگی محیط‌زیست و بر هم‌زدن روابط خاک و گیاه و از سوی دیگر افزایش روزافزون جمعیت کشور و در نتیجه افزایش نیاز بیشتر به تولیدات کشاورزی، لزوم استفاده از اراضی مناطق جنگی درتولید مواد غذایی ضروری می‌باشد. یکی از راه‌حل‌های مؤثر در مدیریت عملکرد گندم در این‌گونه مناطق تأمین سلامت گیاه و در نتیجه سلامت جامعه است. استفاده ازکانی زئولیت یکی از روش‌های پایش عناصر در خاک‌های آلوده می باشد. بدین منظور آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شامل دو سطح خاک، آلوده و غیرآلوده به سلاح‌های جنگی و چهار سطح زئولیت شامل صفر، 5/0، 5/1و 5/2 درصد وزنی بود. نتایج نشان داد که تأثیر تیمارهای زئولیت بر وزن خشک ریشه در خاک‌ آلوده و غیرآلوده معنی‌دار بود. وزن خشک ریشه در خاک‌ آلوده در بیشترین سطح کاربردی زئولیت 11/11 و در خاک غیرآلوده93/6 گرم درگلدان بود. همچنین اثر زئولیت بر وزن هزار دانه در خاک‌ آلوده و غیرآلوده معنی‌دار بود. بیشترین وزن هزار دانه در تیمار زئولیت 5/2 درصد خاک‌ آلوده و کم‌ترین مقدار در شرایط عدم کاربرد زئولیت در خاک غیرآلوده حاصل شد. در خاک‌های غیرآلوده اثر تیمار زئولیت بر تعداد دانه در سنبلچه و تعداد سنبلچه در سنبله غیرمعنی‌دار بود. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که تأثیر زئولیت بر عملکرد دانه در خاک‌ آلوده و غیرآلوده معنی‌دار است. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در خاک‌ آلوده با کاربرد زئولیت 5/2 درصد (2/63 گرم در گلدان) و کم‌ترین مقدار در خاک غیرآلوده با عدم کاربرد زئولیت (8/8 گرم درگلدان) مشاهده گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of zeolite on root dry matter and yield parameters of wheat in polluted soil by chemical weapons

نویسندگان [English]

  • A. Azogh 1
  • S.K.i Marashi 2
  • T. Babaeinejad 3
1 M.Sc. Student Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Khuzestan Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Background and Objectives
Nowadays, regarding the adverse effect of war and use of military weapons in the environment and also its limitations against cereal cultivation and population growth, the use of lands affected by military weapons in order to produce foods for human is a critical necessity. One of the most effective factors on wheat yield management is the application of zeolite as a source of manure and monitoring heavy metal concentrations affected by this mineral. The best option is to use zeolites as inorganic fertilizers and also for monitoring polluted by the mineral elements. So, studying the effect of zeolite on yield characteristics of wheat in polluted soil with chemical weapons seems to be necessary.
Materials and Methods
This experiment was carried out in a completely randomized factorial design with three replications where the treatments were polluted and non-polluted soil samples and four amounts of zeolite (0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 % w/w).
Results
The results showed that the effect of zeolite on root dry matter was significant in polluted and non-polluted soils. The most amount of applied zeolite led to increasing dry matter to 11.11 g/pot in polluted soil and 6.93 g/pot in non-polluted soil. Also, the effect of zeolite on 1000-grain weight in polluted and non-polluted soils was significant. The maximum 1000-grain weight was observed in 2.5 % zeolite in polluted soil and the minimum was observed in non-used zeolite treatment in non-polluted soil. Effect of zeolite treatment on number of grains per spikelet and number of spikelet per spike was not significant in non-polluted soil. Results of this experiment showed that the effect of zoelite on grain yield in polluted and non-polluted soil was significant. The maximum grain yield was observed in 2.5% zeolite treatment with 63.2 g/pot and the minimum was obtained in non-used zeolite treatment in non-polluted soil with 8.8 g/pot.
Discussion
In general, the zeolite has a significant effect on agronomic traits and yield of wheat. That was due to favorable physical and chemical properties, such as porosity, air permeability, cation exchange capacity, enhancing the long-term availability of nutrients and trapping heavy metals of bombs and weapons and reducing the negative impact of these elements in the soil, which lead to plant health.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Heavy metals
  • Pollution
  • Warchlorophyll
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