بررسی تأثیر ماده گیاهی ماشک گل خوشه‌ای (Vicia vilosa Roth.) و پروبیوتیک‌ها بر کاهش آلودگی گل‌جالیز منشعب (Orobanche ramosa)در گوجه‌فرنگی (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill)

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد اگرواکولوژی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

4 استادیار، گروه گیاهپزشکی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر پروبیوتیک‌ها و گیاه دگرآسیب ماشک گل خوشه‌ای بر کنترل علف‌هرز گل‌جالیز، آزمایشی گلخانه‌ایبه‌صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با چهار تکراردر گلخانه تحقیقاتی پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه رازی به اجرا درآمد. هدف از انجام این آزمایش تعیین حساسیت ارقام مختلف گوجه‌فرنگی به آلوده شدن توسط گل‌جالیز در حضور ماده دگرآسیب ماشک گل خوشه‌ای و تعیین تأثیر پروبیوتیک‌های گیاهی بر کنترل گل‌جالیز بود. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل استفاده از ارقام مختلف گوجه‌فرنگی شامل کارون، ارس، سوپراسترین‌بی و سیوند، ماده خشک گیاه دگرآسیب ماشک گل خوشه‌ای، جدایه‌های باکتری شامل (INR7) Bacillus pumilis، (P2)  Bacillus megateriumو (E11)Bacillus licheniformis بودند. نتایج نشان داد که رقم سیوند حساس‌ترین نسبت به آلودگی گل‌جالیز بود. این درحالی بود که رقم کارون بیشترین تحمل را به گل‌جالیز داشت. افزودن ماده دگرآسیب ماشک گل خوشه‌ای تأثیر بسیار خوبی بر افزایش وزن گوجه‌فرنگی داشت. کاربرد جدایه  INR7تأثیر مثبتی بر کاهش آلودگی گل‌جالیز داشت. درحالی‌که جدایه P2 علاوه بر افزایش وزن، سبب افزایش تعداد میوه گوجه‌فرنگی شد. در همه ارقام گوجه‌فرنگی افزودن ماده دگرآسیب ماشک گل خوشه‌ای تأثیر مثبتی بر کاهش گل‌جالیز داشت؛ به‌طوری‌که کاهش 100 درصدی جمعیت گل‌جالیز به دنبال داشت. استفاده از پروبیوتیک‌ها (به‌ویژه نوع INR7) موجب کاهش جمعیت گل‌جالیز شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating the Effect of Dry Residues Plant Hairy Vetch (Vicia vilosa Roth) And Plant Probiotics on Reducing the Infection of Branched Broomrape (Orobanche ramosa) In Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill)

نویسندگان [English]

  • I. Nosratti 1
  • s. amiri 2
  • Gh. Mohammadi 3
  • D. Kahrizi 3
  • R. Sharifi 4
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 M.Sc. Student of Agroecology, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract 
Background and Objectives
Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill) is one the most important economic crop in the world and Iran. Broomrape is the main constrain of tomato production. Some Orobanche species such as O.cumana or O. crenata are specialist in parasites of a small group of genera or species, while others have a much broader spectrum of hosts as is the case of O. ramosa. The available control methods have not proven to be as effective, economical and applicable as desired; thus, the only way to cope with the weedy root parasites is through an integrated approach, employing a variety of measures like resistant cultivars, plant probiotics and allelopathic plants in a concerted manner.
Materials and methods
Hence the aim this study was to determining the susceptibility of various cultivars of tomato to infection by O. ramosa and effect of allelopathic hairy vetch and plant probiotics on reducing the O. ramosa invasion. Greenhouse experiment was conducted in the greenhouse of Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran in 2016. Treatments were different tomato cultivars including Karoon, Aras, Super strain-B and Sivand, allelopathic hairy vetch cluster, bacteria isolates, including INR7, P2, and E11. The soil of each pot was contaminated with 20 mg seed of O. ramosa. At the termination of the experiment, the number and weight of tomato fruits, dry weight of roots and aerials parts of tomato plants were recorded.
Results
Our results showed that although the Sivand was the most susceptible cultivar to O. ramosa infection, Karoon cultivar had the highest to levace to branched broomrape. Results of present study revealed that broomrape biomass was positively correlated to decreased tomato biomass. The presence of allelopathic plant hairy vetch increased tomato weight in presence of branched broomrape. The use of probiotic P2 increased the number and weight of tomato in the presence of O. ramosa, while it had no effect on infection of O. ramosa. However, only INR7 probiotic had some inhibitory effect on branched broomrape infection.
Discussion
Totally hairy vetch had a significant effect on reducing of O. ramosa infection (up to 100% control). Based on these results, it could be concluded that plant probiotics only increase tomato yield without any dirrectly effect to broomrape residues of hairy vetch probably by releasing allelochemical redused orobanche germination infection

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Allelopathic
  • Bacillus
  • Native
  • Probiotics
  • resistance
  • Weed parasite
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