تجزیه ژنتیکی عملکرد دانه، اجزاء عملکرد دانه و برخی صفات مرفولوژیکی و فنولوژیکی لاین‌های تریتیکاله

نوع مقاله: علمی - پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان

چکیده

بهمنظور ارزیابی لاین‌های تریتیکاله برای شرایط کم‌بازده، این تحقیق با 36 لاین تریتیکاله در قالب طرح آلفا لاتیس انجام شد. تعداد روز از سبز شدن تا برخی مراحل فنولوژیکی و عملکرد دانه و اجزاء آن تعیین گردید. نتایج نشان داد که تفاوت لاین‌ها برای همه صفات معنی‌دار بود. دامنه تغییرات تعداد روز از سبز شدن تا ظهور سنبله و رسیدگی فیزیولوژیکی به‌ترتیب 103-89 و 141-129 روز بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه (4790 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و سرعت رشد محصول دانه (14/1 گرم در مترمربع در روز) به لاین 29 تعلق داشت. بالاترین ضریب تنوع ژنتیکی به تعداد روز از سبز شدن تا ظهور سنبله (43/6 درصد) و عملکرد بیولوژیکی (36/4 درصد) تعلق داشت. میانگین عملکرد دانه لاین‌ها در دامنه4790- 1898 کیلوگرم در هکتار متغیر بود. با توجه به عملکرد دانه و میزان تشابه لاین‌ها در تجزیه کلاستر، لاین‌های 5، 8، 15، 17، 20، 22، 23، 26 و 29 به‌ترتیب با عملکرد دانه 4494، 3748، 3820، 3777، 3757، 3717، 4007، 3780 و 4790 کیلوگرم در هکتار به عنوان لاین‌های برتر انتخاب شدند. با توجه به تشابه بالای عملکرد دانه با سرعت رشد محصول دانه (95 درصد) و عملکرد بیولوژیکی (86 درصد) در تجزیه کلاستر و ضریب تنوع ژنتیکی بالای این دو صفت، با هدف عملکرد دانه بالا، این لاین‌ها به‌عنوان یک منبع ژنتیکی مطلوب برای انتقال این صفات در برنامه‌های به‌نژادی ارزیابی می‌شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Genetic Analysis of Grain Yield, Grain Yield Components and some Phonological Traits of Triticale Genotypes.

نویسنده [English]

  • a Naderi
چکیده [English]

Background and Objectives
Triticale is a crop species resulting from a plant breeder's cross between wheat (Triticum) and rye (Secale). Plant breeders originally wanted to include the combination of grain quality, productivity, and disease resistance of wheat with the vigor and hardness of rye. Triticale is mainly introduced as a crop which is more adapted under low-potential condition than the wheat and other small cereals. Triticale could be used as a feed grain. As a feed grain, triticale is already well established and of high economic importance. The aim of a triticale breeding program is mainly focused on the improvement of quantitative traits, such as grain yield, nutritional quality and plant height, as well as traits which are more difficult to improve, such as earlier maturity and improved test weight. In order to study the relationship between grain yield and its related traits and to select high yielding lines of triticale, this research was carried-out in a low-potential condition.
Material and Methods
This research was conducted in Ahvaz Agricultural Research station during 2013-2014 cropping season, with 36 lines, using α-lattice design with two replications. Fertilizers were used based on soil test results. Each line was planted in six 6-meter rows with 0.2 meter spacing in Nov.8 and irrigation was done immediately. Days from germination to heading, physiological maturity and ripening stages, and grain yield and its components were determined. Genetic variation coefficient was   calculated based on GC={[(Vg-Ve)/r]/M}×100, equation in which GC, Vg, Ve, r and M are genetic variation coefficient, phenotype variance, variance of error, replication and mean trait, respectively. Data were analyzed using MSTATC software.
Results
Results indicated that genotypes were significantly different for all traits. Ranges of days from germination to ear emergence and physiological maturity were 89-103 and 129-141 respectively. T he highest grain yield (4790 Kg.ha-1) and grain crop growth rate (14.1 g.m-2.day-1) was belonged to line No.29. The highest genetic variation coefficients were obtained from days from germination to ear emergence (43.6%) and biological yield (36.4%). Range of mean grain yield was 1898-4652 Kg/ha and lines No,:5, 8, 15, 17, 20, 22, 23, 26 and 29 with grain yields 4494, 3748, 3820, 3777, 3757, 3717, 4007, 3780 and 4651 Kg.ha-1 respectively, were selected for advanced trails.
Discussions
Regarding high similarity among grain yields with both grain growth rate (95%) and biological yield (86%) in cluster analysis and high genetic variation of the mentioned traits, the lines with both high biological yielding and grain growth rate were evaluated as the optimum genetic sources for breeding programs of triticale. Lines with both traits have capability to accumulate high amount of dry matter and to allocate a large proportion of this dry matter to grains.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Triticale
  • Ear emergence
  • Genetic variation
  • Biological yield
  • Harvest index