عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Objectives
The cultivated apple, Malusdomestica, belongs to the Rosaceae Family, and the subfamily of Pomoideae. Apples are adaptable to various climates, but can be considered best adapted to the cool temperate zone from about 35-50 degrees latitude. Khorasan Razavi has a large and diverse genetic resource of apple trees. There fore, identification, collection and evaluation of these genotypes are necessary to plan future research programs. This study was conducted with the purpose of investigating 12 different genotypes of local apple trees in Khorasan Razanvi province by using national guidlines for conducting test of Distinctive, Uniformity and Stability (DUS).
Materials and methods
This investigation was carried out in the apple orchad collection located in Torogh station of Khorasan Razavi Agriculture and Natural Resource Research Center during 2010-2012. In this study, 12 local apple genotypes including Torbati, Khojeh Hesar, OghazShirvan, Alimoridovom, Kompoti, Kojeh Torbat, Arbabi Bojnord, Sheykh Ahmad Tabriz, Morabaye, Abasi, Sheykh Amiri, Golmakani were evaluated based on a randomized complete block (RCBD) with 3 replications. The morphological and fruit pomological traits were measured in each genotype. The evaluated characters were firmness, width and depth of eye basin, width and depth of stalk cavity, stalk length and thickness, fruit length, width, yield and weight, flower diameter, peduncle length, leaf blade length and width, length of internodes, one-year-old shoot growth and one-year-old shoot diameter. Data were analyzed using MSTATC and Mini-tab software. The analysis of variance on test data and comparison with the middle of the Duncan test were performed at the 5% level.
The results of ANOVA showed significant differences between apple genotypes; that is, Golmakani and Morabaye genotypes with 181.67 and 7.1 g fruit weight had the largest and smallest fruit weight, respectively. The mean comparision indicated that vegetative characteristics differed significantly among genotypes, so that the length, blade width, and thickness of annual branch were higher in Oghaz Shirvan genotype than other genotypes. Also, the longest internode length and annual branch growth beloged to Golmakani genotype. The coefficient of correlation analysis among different measured traits showed positiveand significant correlations between fruitdiameter and fruit length, fruit weight, eye bezel width, brew bezel width, flower diameter. In addition, there were strong positive and significant correlations between fruit yield and fruitdiameter and fruit weight. Fruit yield did not show a significant correlation with other traits. Cluster analysis with Ward method classified genotypes to 5 clusters, including very early and early ripening (Torbati, KhojehHesar, Alimouridovom, Khojeh Torbat, OghazShirvan, Sheykh Ahmad Tabriz and Morabaye), midripenning (Kompoti and Arbabi Bojnourd), late ripening (Abasi and Sheykh Amiri Shirvan) and very late ripening (Golmakani).
In general, the present results showed that Kompoti genotype is recommended for mid season regions due to low variation in mid mature ripening genotypes, and Morabaye is suitable for stock because of its small fruits and low vegetative growths.